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MIDWAY: “OUTNUMBERED AND OUTGUNNED, THEY WITHSTOOD SAVAGE BOMBARDMENT, FOUGHT BACK, AND CARRIED THE FIGHT TO THE ENEMY. ” BUT WILL THEY SURVIVE TRUMP’S ADMINISTRATION?

Warbirds on the Seafloor: Sunken Aircraft Archaeology and the Search for Lost Planes at Midway Atoll” video: http://youtu.be/gtyGfpC-5Ms

Comment on this and other threatened US Marine Monuments-Monument expansions here, deadline tonight August 15, 11.59 PM Eastern (NY-DC time) https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=NOAA-NOS-2017-0066-0001


Midway Marker abmc.gov
The World War II Midway Memorial Marker on Midway Atoll at the northwestern portion of the Hawaiian island chain: “THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA HONORS THE COURAGE, SACRIFICE, AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE AMERICAN ARMED FORCES WHO SUCCESSFULLY DEFENDED THIS ISLAND AND ITS SURROUNDING SEAS AGAINST THE EMPIRE OF JAPAN DURING THE PERIOD OF 4-7 JUNE 1942. OUTNUMBERED AND OUTGUNNED, THEY WITHSTOOD SAVAGE BOMBARDMENT, FOUGHT BACK, AND CARRIED THE FIGHT TO THE ENEMY. DARING AIR STRIKES IN THE FACE OF FIERCE RESISTANCE SANK FOUR ENEMY AIRCRAFT CARRIERS, TURNING THE TIDE OF WORLD WAR II IN THE PACIFIC. AFTER THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY, THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES FORGED AHEAD WITH EVER INCREASING STRENGTH AND CONFIDENCE TO FINAL VICTORY, SECURING THE BLESSINGS OF FREEDOM AND LIBERTY FOR GENERATIONS YET UNBORN.

World War II shipwrecks and aircraft in the adjacent area, though not identified as objects under the Antiquities Act in this proclamation, are of great historic interest. The naval portion of the Battle of Midway, one of the most important naval battles of World War II, occurred approximately 200 miles to the northeast of Midway Atoll, in the adjacent area. Deep-sea technologies have enabled the USS Yorktown, an aircraft carrier torpedoed during the battle, to be found at more than 16,000 feet below the ocean’s surface. Eyewitness accounts and historical records tell the stories of the destroyer USS Hammann, five Japanese vessels (the four aircraft carriers Hiryu, Soryu, Kaga, and Akagi, and the cruiser Mikuma), and several hundred aircraft that were also lost during the battle in this area. The locations of these vessels have yet to be identified. All told, the adjacent area serves as a final resting place for the more than 3,000 people lost during the battle.  WHEREAS, the waters and submerged lands adjacent to the Monument (west of 163° West Longitude and seaward from the boundaries delineated in Proclamation 8031 as amended by Proclamation 8112 out to the limit of the U.S. EEZ) contain objects of historic and scientific interest that are situated upon lands owned or controlled by the Federal Government; . . . .” Excerpted from: “PAPAHĀNAUMOKUĀKEA MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT EXPANSION Proclamation“: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/08/26/presidential-proclamation-papahanaumokuakea-marine-national-monument

Trump Clearly Has No Respect For The Living Nor The Dead Nor Future Generations

They make it clear that attempts to undermine this and other Marine sanctionaries and/or expansions is for Trump’s greedy buddies, donors, and/or greedy Trump investments: Executive Order 13795 of April 28, 2017 directs the Secretary of Commerce to review National Marine Sanctuaries and Marine National Monuments designated or expanded since April 28, 2007… The opportunity costs associated with potential energy and mineral exploration and production from the Outer Continental Shelf, in addition to any impacts on production in the adjacent region.” (28828 Federal Register / Vol. 82, No. 121, Monday, June 26, 2017)


The U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS Yorktown (CV-5) operating in the Pacific in February 1942, photographed from a Douglas TBD-1 torpedo plane that has just taken off from her deck. Other TBD and SBD aircraft are also ready to be launched. A F4F-3 “Wildcat” fighter is parked on the outrigger just forward of the island. The other ships in company include the fleet oiler USS Guadaloupe (AO-32), a destroyer and a heavy cruiser. This view has been retouched to censor the CXAM-radar antenna mounted atop Yorktown’s foremast.DateApril 1942 Source Official U.S. Navy photo 80-G-640553 from the U.S. Navy Naval History and Heritage Commandhttps://www.history.navy.mil/our-collections/photography/numerical-list-of-images/nara-series/80-g/80-G-600000/80-G-640553.html

Considered one of the most decisive battles of World War II, the U.S. Pacific Fleet turned the tide of the war during this epic  battle in June 1942. After the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the Japanese had been on the offensive, capturing territory throughout the Pacific. And by spring 1942, they planned to attack Midway with the goal of destroying the U.S. Pacific Fleet and capturing the atoll. Acquiring this small island would have positioned Japanese forces closer to the continental United States, serving as a jumping off point to the west coast./ Intercepted messages and code-breaking proved a key component to American success, alerting forces  well ahead of time of the pending attack. Through this critical intelligence and decisive American naval and air attacks, the Japanese fleet crumbled, losing the four large carriers that had attacked Pearl Harbor, and losing more than 100 trained pilots. Had the Japanese been successful in their attack, the war in the Pacific would have been dramatically different. Midway Atoll is itself a memorial designated as the Battle of Midway National Memorial by the U.S. Department of the Interior, now managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.” https://www.abmc.gov/cemeteries-memorials/pacific/midway-memorial-marker

Midway was of vital importance to both Japanese and American war strategies in World War II, and the raid of June 4, 1942, is one of the most significant events in the history of the naval base. The Battle of Midway took place 100-200 miles north of Midway Atoll. Four Japanese aircraft carriers and one American carrier were sunk, and the Japanese military was forced to withdraw from a planned invasion. Although most of the battle took place far to the north, an intense air battle was waged directly over and around the atoll. Thirty-one plane crashes have been conclusively identified by archival research. Of these, 22 were American and nine were Japanese. These crash sites are all considered war graves. The Battle of Midway is considered the most decisive U.S. victory of that period and is referred to as the turning point of the war in the Pacific. Midway Atoll has since been designated as a National Memorial to the Battle of Midway.” (“Midway Atoll: History Beyond the Battle“, Kelly Keogh, PhD Maritime Heritage Coordinator/Maritime Archaeologist, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/17midway/background/midway-history/midway-history.html )

The lost aircraft of Midway are not just aviation archaeology sites – they are war graves and tangible reminders of the sacrifices of brave young aviators who took to the skies during World War II… Scientists involved in this project have collected dozens of first-hand observations about aircraft wreck locations at Midway Atoll (in addition to aircraft loss locations based upon archival research). Based on discoveries made in 2014 and 2015 of sunken aircraft within Midway’s waters, we have a large degree of confidence in the locational accuracy of historical accounts of aircraft losses. Due to the chaos of the conflict, some of the most accurate information about location of sunken and lost aircraft sites has come from the first-hand observations of the men who fought for this tiny atoll in 1942.” Kelly Keogh, PhD, Maritime Heritage Coordinator/Maritime Archaeologist, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument) http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/17midway/background/sunken-aircraft/sunken-aircraft.html

Midway Atoll: “the landscape of the island was, and still is, largely defined by what the military built and left behind, both on land and in the water. The original seaplane launch, complete with anchor points for the planes dotting the concrete slabs; an original airplane hangar with bullet holes visible in the metal walls; and the original generator building where a Japanese shell launched from a passing ship on the evening of December 7, 1941, killed LT. George Cannon, U.S. Marine Corps, who was the first Marine in World War II to be awarded the Medal of Honor. These are all monuments to the past, and reminders of the events that took place 75 years ago on two tiny islands in the north Pacific.

Our project was sub-titled “Honoring the Legacy of the 75th Anniversary of the Battle of Midway” purposely because we feel that this project—this survey and documentation of planes—is the best way for us to honor those who fought and lost their lives in the Battle of Midway. As archeologists and historians, we strive to tell the whole history accurately, with as many tangible artifacts as we can find to guide us to that goal. We also need to show the public what we find in a meaningful way, that corroborates the history we are telling, and hopefully in a way that enriches their knowledge of the past with visuals from the present….” Mission Summary, May 18, 2017, Bert Ho Senior Underwater Archaeologist, National Park Service http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/17midway/logs/summary/summary.html


http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/17midway/logs/may16-2/media/corsair-photogrammetry.html

I know everyone wants to know if we discovered any aircraft or not. We never expected to find a fully intact airplane sitting in the lagoon, but we were cautiously optimistic that we would find something, anything. Well, we did, but identification is inconclusive for now. It is most likely part of an aircraft, we believe from the World War II era, as it is located in an area that corroborates with witness accounts of downed planes during the Battle of Midway nearly 75 years ago… we would like to thank the veterans of the Battle of Midway for their courage and determination to defend a small but important place in the north Pacific. Your stories are important, and we hope to continue to tell them with honor and respect.” “From Midway to Pearl Harbor” May 16, 2017, Bert Ho, Senior Underwater Archaeologist, National Park Service http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/17midway/logs/may16-2/may16-2.html

See too: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2017/07/24/many-endangered-species-threatened-by-trump-at-papahanaumokuakea-and-other-marine-national-monuments-comment-by-wednesday-night-11-59-pm-edt/
https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2017/07/24/trump-threatens-wisdom-oldest-known-wild-bird-an-albatross-who-is-also-new-mother-comment-deadline-26-july-11-59-pm-et-1-min-to-midnight/

Warbirds on the Seafloor: Sunken Aircraft Archaeology and the Search for Lost Planes at Midway Atoll, Kelly Keogh, PhD
Maritime Heritage Coordinator/Maritime Archaeologist
Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument
This project focuses primarily on the exploration for sunken aircraft sites and the niche of aviation archaeology. Aviation archaeology is a relatively new field of study. Despite the fact that most sunken aircraft sites are relatively recent (<100 years old), and the technology is contemporary enough to include the type of background information that provides details about construction, etc., the unique opportunity that aviation archaeology presents is the ability to open windows in to significant moments in history where pilots and their relatives may still be alive to compliment the material culture discovered on the seafloor. The opportunity to combine first-hand accounts with dynamic sites discovered via exploration creates an emotional connection that inspires us all and reinforces the lessons and relevance of history.

The lost aircraft of Midway are not just aviation archaeology sites – they are war graves and tangible reminders of the sacrifices of brave young aviators who took to the skies during World War II.

This project will contribute to the field of aviation archaeology via discovery, documentation, and interpretation of several sites that will provide the public with compelling stories that make connections to World War II activities in the Pacific. Even more significant is the timing of this project, which will take place in advance of the 75th Anniversary of the Battle of Midway in June of 2017. http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/redirect.php?url=http://midway75.org/

Aircraft discoveries are significant because of how much they differ from shipwreck sites, and the broader implications for the nascent field of aviation archaeology for this proposal lies in a battlefield approach to surveying multiple aircraft sites representing a famous battle like the Battle of Midway.
Questions developed to address the unique survey of sunken aircraft sites include:
* How did each side configure and adapt their assets to confront both strategic and tactical challenges before, during, and after the epic clash in June of 1942?
* What modifications from “factory stock” can be seen in the material assemblages of downed aircraft and what does that tell us about individual and collective agency on a battlefield that spanned a significant portion of the northern Pacific?
* While American aircraft were technologically inferior at the outset of the war, were the materials used in their construction superior to those of the Japanese? If so, do we see the earliest traces of American industrial excellence that would ultimately prevail in both the Pacific and in Europe?
* How do archaeologists document a widespread scatter of material? Are there properties of the material used in constructing aircrafts that affect site formation processes, and what can we learn from what remains on site and from what is missing? How are artifacts from these types of sites conserved and what are the best ways to protect these sites?
As the generation of pilots that flew these aircraft continues to dwindle, there is a compelling need to incorporate their first-hand knowledge of these planes and how they were used into the discussion of how to document and interpret the wreckage.
Scientists involved in this project have collected dozens of first-hand observations about aircraft wreck locations at Midway Atoll (in addition to aircraft loss locations based upon archival research). Based on discoveries made in 2014 and 2015 of sunken aircraft within Midway’s waters, we have a large degree of confidence in the locational accuracy of historical accounts of aircraft losses. Due to the chaos of the conflict, some of the most accurate information about location of sunken and lost aircraft sites has come from the first-hand observations of the men who fought for this tiny atoll in 1942.
http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/17midway/background/sunken-aircraft/sunken-aircraft.html
 
Yorktown photo public domain via wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Yorktown_(CV-5)