Anthrax, Anthrax outbreak, Armed Forces of Ukraine, Biolabs, Biopreparat, bioweapons, cattle disease, China, COVID-19, Daszak, disease monitoring, epidemiological surveillance, H1N1, Judicial Watch, lab accident, lab leak, lab monitoring, livestock disease, manipulation of language, propaganda, Russia, Russian attacks on Ukraine, Russian bioweapons, Russian flu, Soviet bioweapons, Soviet Russia, Sverdlovsk anthrax discharge, Ukraine, vaccine research, Vaccines
Russia studied anthrax as a bioweapon from 1926 (and likely earlier). There was a major anthrax discharge at a Russian bioweapons facility in 1979 with many deaths.
So, concerns that anthrax, or other bioweapons, might be used by Russia against Ukrainian troops on the battlefield are more than legitimate.
Additionally, today, we need to be concerned that Russia could intentionally attack Ukrainian civilians and livestock with bioweapons, such as anthrax, or attack countries which support Ukraine. The countries which Putin gives the silly name of “unfriendly countries” need to be on alert.
The 1977 “Russian Flu” appears to have come from a lab, and first appeared in Siberia and China. At the time, Russia’d bioweapons research was far more advanced, than was China’s, and Russia and China were enemies.
There was a Russian bio-lab explosion in September 2019, shortly before the Covid-19 pandemic started, with a time-lag sufficient to allow Covid-19 to arrive in China: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2022/03/07/russia-vector-bio-lab-researched-vaccine-for-the-original-sars-covid-vector-lab-exploded-in-september-2019-sars-covid-19-appears-in-china-in-october-or-november Also related: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2022/05/21/testimony-by-dr-kenneth-alibek-on-soviet-and-russian-bioweapons-programs-including-monkeypox-1998-testimony-2002-interview/
Even apart from the Putin menace, there needs to be secure monitoring for anthrax. In Zimbabwe, cattle are currently being vaccinated against anthrax (“Anthrax vaccination in progress”, 19 November 2022). The Zimbabwe Herald explains that “Livestock, particularly cattle, take up anthrax bacteria while grazing on contaminated land. People get infected when they handle or eat anthrax-infected meat.” In Zimbabwe, “Statistics indicate that this year alone, 36 cattle have succumbed to the disease and 200 people have contracted the disease, but no deaths were recorded”. https://www.herald.co.zw/anthrax-vaccination-in-progress
In a November 10, 2022 News Release, Judicial Watch appears to intentionally use uncommon words to make US efforts to help Ukraine keep track of lab specimens, including a printer, and to protect from a Russian anthrax attack sound like something bad. Training reports presented are dated from December 2018, i.e. under the Trump Administration.
Does Judicial Watch have info on Daszak’s work in Russia? Or because it’s Russia, and not China, it’s ok by them? https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2022/08/09/ecohealth-alliance-daszak-worked-with-russian-coronavirus-researchers-as-well-as-the-wuhan-lab-wiv/
Americans need to keep in mind that a) the US is far closer to mainland Russia, than Poland is, and b) Putin deals the most harshly with those who turned against him, than those who never supported him.
Judicial Watch chooses the scary sounding word “expunge” to refer to an inactive web link. They clearly chose this word because it sounds awful to the average ear, when it just means delete or remove: https://www.thefreedictionary.com/expunge
Judicial Watch apparently thinks that Americans don’t know what epidemiology is, or what “epidemiological surveillance” would be. They write the following, as though it’s something bad, rather than good. It’s good to make sure that there are no disease outbreaks in the Ukrainian military, not something bad! Judicial Watch wrote: “reinforcing the system of epidemiological surveillance in the Armed Forces of Ukraine”, which means to help Ukraine know if Russia launched an anthrax, or other bioweapons attack, against them on the battlefield. It also could simply related to monitoring for natural disease outbreaks, which are of concern due to close quarters of military personnel.
And, everyone should want labs to be able to keep track of diseases (i.e. pathogens). A bar code printer, listed in Judicial Watch’s FOIA, is one of the cheaper things that the US government has invested in. Far more is spent on feeding the exploding populations of foreign countries. The US doesn’t even get credit for feeding the world, because the money is pooled. The US taxpayer shouldn’t be in the charity business, whether in the US or abroad. Yet, the taxpayer unknowingly props up Catholic Charities, and other religious charities, even though the majority of US taxpayers are non-Catholic.
The paragraph from the Judicial Watch news release, below, doesn’t appear in the archived document, which they linked to:
“According to a webpage expunged from the website of the State Department: https://web.archive.org/web/20210506212717/https://photos.state.gov/libraries/ukraine/895/pdf/dtro-pathogen-asset-control.pdf PACS [Pathogen Asset Control System] was first installed in Ukraine in test mode in November 2009 at the Interim Central Reference Laboratory of the Especially Dangerous Pathogens (ICRL). Since then, Sanitary-Epidemiological Department (SED) of the Medical Command of the Ukrainian Ministry of Defense received four mobile laboratories from DTRA with the goal of reinforcing the system of epidemiological surveillance in the Armed Forces of Ukraine.” ( See: “Judicial Watch: Defense Department Records Reveal U.S. Funding of Anthrax Laboratory Activities in Ukraine” https://www.judicialwatch.org/dod-records-anthrax-lab/ https://www.judicialwatch.org/documents/ukraine-biolabs-november-2022/ )
Now shouldn’t we want Ukraine to keep track of dangerous pathogens, such as anthrax, which afflict livestock?
Why would anyone want them to be lost or unaccounted for, apart from terrorists?
And, shouldn’t we want Ukraine to know if their Armed Forces get sick, whether naturally or from a Russian bioweapons attack?
To call Judicial Watch’s news release cow manure (i.e. BS), would be an insult to manure, which has useful functions. Judicial Watch has posted useful content, but the timing, language, and content of this news release is questionable, and makes them look like they are working for Russia. Why would they choose this topic, while Ukraine’s under attack by Russia? And, why would they use this language – particularly “expunge” for a web link that is inactive?
To appreciate “epidemiological surveillance” it may help to define epidemiology:
“Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where), patterns and determinants of health and disease conditions in a defined population.
It is a cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare.
Epidemiologists help with study design, collection, and statistical analysis of data, amend interpretation and dissemination of results (including peer review and occasional systematic review). Epidemiology has helped develop methodology used in clinical research, public health studies, and, to a lesser extent, basic research in the biological sciences.
Major areas of epidemiological study include disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials.
Epidemiologists rely on other scientific disciplines like biology to better understand disease processes, statistics to make efficient use of the data and draw appropriate conclusions, social sciences to better understand proximate and distal causes, and engineering for exposure assessment.”https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidemiology
Probably Tsarist Russia engaged in anthrax research, as well, but it’s known that Soviet Russia did: “In 1926, at a small laboratory controlled by VOKhIMU, Fishman initiated research on Bacillus anthracis (the causative agent of anthrax). In February 1928, Fishman prepared a key report for Kliment Efremovich Voroshilov (the People’s Commissar for Military and Navy Affairs and Chairman of the USSR’s Revolutionary Military Council) on the Soviet Union’s preparedness for biological warfare. It asserted that “the bacterial option could be successfully used in war” and proposed a plan for the organisation of Soviet military bacteriology.”https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_biological_weapons_program
The Sverdlovsk anthrax incident occurred spores of anthrax were “released from a military facility in the city of Sverdlovsk (formerly, and now again, Yekaterinburg) 900 miles east of Moscow on April 2, 1979. This accident is sometimes called “biological Chernobyl”. The ensuing outbreak of the disease resulted in 94 people becoming infected, 64 of whom died over a period of six weeks. There was an estimated 67% fatality rate, which tripled the Soviet Union’s yearly average morbidity from anthrax…” https://web.archive.org/web/20070703082720/https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sverdlovsk_anthrax_leak Notice that it tripled the yearly average, indicating that it was a legitimate livestock health concern.
Text from the archived web page, which Judicial Watch calls “expunged”:
“PATHOGEN ASSET CONTROL SYSTEM
The Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) is an electronic system for accounting, management and control of biological agents. The application is designed to monitor the reception, transfer, movement and destruction of agents, as well as other actions performed with biological materials. The system allows tracking materials of any kind. Each item in the repository is marked with an unique barcode label. The barcode technology using a barcode scanner allows fast and error-free data input and provides an extra level of pathogen asset tracking security. With the help of barcode technology, the repository process is fast, convenient and secure. PACS offers configurable access rights and user management system. Also it allows users to produce a variety of custom reports.
PACS is a highly customizable tool which can be confiqured to meet local needs and regulations, simplify the data entry process and optimally organize data. Extensive search and reporting capabilities allow users to output necessary data set in appropriate formats.
PACS was first installed in Ukraine in test mode in November 2009 at the Interim Central Reference Laboratory of the Especially Dangerous Pathogens (ICRL), located at the Ukrainian Research Anti-Plague Institute in Odessa (URAPI).
AIl program interfaces and database information were translated and localized for
PACS is a turnkey solution. Implementation includes deployment, personnel training and support. The training program includes basic computer training for users with limited computer skills and an in-depth PACS training. PACS is supported by a multilayer technical support team including a Help Desk hot line and support specialists based in Kyiv and Moscow.
The Beneficiary of the Technical Assistance Project is the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. The main objective of the program is an inventory support of the especially dangerous pathogens’ consolidation within ICRL. “ https://web.archive.org/web/20210506212717/https://photos.state.gov/libraries/ukraine/895/pdf/dtro-pathogen-asset-control.pdf
“There are historical and epidemiological aspects of the 1977 influenza epidemic that can be considered suspicious. During that time, the Soviet Union employed tens of thousands of scientists to make biological weapons, and as the 1979 release of aerosolized anthrax in Sverdlovsk, Soviet Union, demonstrated, the safety record for the weapons program was not perfect (8). In addition, influenza was considered to be an incapacitating agent, especially to those without previous exposure to a specific virus strain. The lack of immunity to the resurgent strain was clearly evident by the affected population: individuals who were 26 years of age or younger were especially vulnerable to infection. As this is the predominant age range of the active-duty military population, influenza virus could have been used as a biological weapon to target this group.
Indeed, outbreaks of A/USSR/90/77(H1N1) in military academies were described in official memos as “explosive” (9, 10). The Royal Air Force in Upper Heyford, England, was first affected in January 1978, followed by the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA) in Colorado in February. The outbreak at the USAFA was so severe—over the course of 9 days, 76%, or 3,280 cadets, became ill—that all academic and military training was suspended. This was the “first such interruption in training due to influenza illness in the cadet population” (9). An epidemiological investigation at USAFA revealed no link to other outbreaks nor a temporal association between the onset of cases and athletic competitions with other institutions with influenza cases. It should be noted, however, that the investigations of illness at military academies were likely better investigated and documented than similar outbreaks at other universities and colleges.
While it is possible that the 1977 influenza was caused by deliberate release of the virus, the Soviet Bioweapons program, Biopreparat, tended to use influenza preparedness as a cover story for some of the more nefarious work that was being performed (11). For example, the Omutninsk Chemical Factory manufactured large amounts of influenza vaccine and crop production bacteria aboveground, while plague and tularemia were researched in heavily guarded underground facilities. The Omutninsk Chemical Factory’s capacity to mass produce viruses and bacteria allowed the production of 100 tons of each weapon annually (11). While Biopreparat has not been judged by experts to have seriously investigated influenza as a bioweapon, there were documented attempts to find the 1918 pandemic H1N1 strain in old icehouses where victims were buried, and studies were performed attempting to create radiation-resistant and aerosolized influenza virus (11). Thus, the likelihood of a biological weapons explanation for the 1977 epidemic cannot be completely ruled out…” Rozo M, Gronvall GK. The Reemergent 1977 H1N1 Strain and the Gain-of-Function Debate. mBio. 2015 Aug 18;6(4):e01013-15. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01013-15. PMID: 26286690; PMCID: PMC4542197. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4542197/
At the time, China and the USSR were enemies, so it could have been a Soviet attack on China:
“Increasingly, China began to consider the Soviet Union, which it viewed as social imperialist, as the greatest threat it faced, more so than even the leading capitalist power, the United States. In turn, overtures were made between the PRC and the US, such as in the Ping Pong Diplomacy and the 1972 Nixon visit to China. From 1965 to 1988, the Sino–Soviet border, including the Tumen River area, became highly militarized and fortified. That included a large concentration of tactical nuclear-armed missile sites on both sides of the zone.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Sino-Russian_relations#From_camaraderie_to_the_Sino–Soviet_Split
Putin Friend-Advisor Henry Kissinger had the US Stop its Bioweapons Program while Russia Continued Theirs. Putin served the Soviet Union in the KGB until he was almost 40 years old, and considers the fall of the Soviet Union a great catastrophe. Kissinger, who was even accused of being a Soviet agent, later served as an advisor for Putin with annual or biannual visits for many years. https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB58/RNCBW20.pdf
Was it an accident or were they making their population guinea pigs?
“Sverdlovsk anthrax leak is an incident when Spores of anthrax were accidentally released from a military facility in the city of Sverdlovsk (formerly, and now again, Yekaterinburg) 900 miles east of Moscow on April 2, 1979. This accident is sometimes called “biological Chernobyl” . The ensuing outbreak of the disease resulted in 94 people becoming infected, 64 of whom died over a period of six weeks. There was an estimated 67% fatality rate, which tripled the Soviet Union’s yearly average morbidity from anthrax. The cause of the outbreak had for years been denied by the Soviet Union, which blamed the deaths on intestinal exposure due to the consumption of tainted meat from the area, and subcutaneous exposure due to butchers handling the tainted meat. All medical records of the victims had been removed in order to obscure the symptoms consistent with respiratory exposure, to avoid revelations of serious violations of the Biological Weapons Convention, and to hide embarrassing inadequacies in the Soviet health care system.
The closed city of Sverdlovsk had been major production center of Soviet military-industrial complex since World War II. It produced tanks, nuclear rockets and other armaments. A major nuclear accident happened in this region in 1958, when a military reactor was damaged, resulting in spread of radioactive dust over thousand square kilometers. The biological weapons facility in Sverdlovsk was built after the World War II, using documentation captured in Manchuria from Japanese germ warfare program 
The strain of anthrax produced in military Compound 19 near Sverdlovsk was most powerful in the Soviet arsenal (“Anthrax 836”). It has been isolated as a result of another anthrax leak accident that happened in 1953 in the city of Kirov. A leak from bacteriological facility contaminated the city sewer system. In 1956, biologist Vladimir Sizov found a more virulent strain in rodents captured in this area. This strain was planned to be installed in SS-18 rockets, which would target Western cities. 
The produced anthrax culture had to be dried to produce a fine powder for use as an aerosol. Large filters over the exhaust pipes were the only barriers between the anthrax dust and the outside environment. On last Friday of March 1979, a technician removed a clogged filter, whereas drying machines were temporarily turned down. He left a written notice but did not write this down in the logbook as he was supposed to do. Supervisor of the next shift did not find anything unusual in logbook, and turned machines on. In a few hours, someone found that the filter was missing and reinstalled it. The incident was reported to military command, but local and city officials were not immediately informed. Boris Yeltsin, a local Communist Part boss at this time, was denied access to the secret facility 
All workers of a ceramic plant across the street fell ill during next few days. Almost all of them died in a week. The death toll was at least 105, but no one knows the number because all hospital records and other evidence were destroyed by the KGB, according to former Biopreparat deputy director Kenneth Alibek .
In the 1980s, there was vigorous international debate and speculation as to whether the outbreak was natural or an accidental exposure. If accidental, there was discussion of whether it represented violation of the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention. A number of small investigations launched by Russian scientists in the years immediately following the dissolution of the Soviet Union re-opened the case in a number of newspaper articles.
A team of Western inspectors lead by Professor Matthew Meselson of Harvard finally gained access to the region in 1992, and determined that all of the victims had been living directly downwind at the time of the release of the spores via aerosol. Livestock in the area were also affected. It was revealed around this time that the accident was caused by the non-replacement of a filter on an exhaust at the facility, and though the problem was quickly rectified it was too late to prevent a release. Had the winds been blowing in the direction of the city at that time, it could have resulted in the pathogen being spread to hundreds of thousands of people. The military facility remains closed to inspection. Professor Meselson’s original contention for many years had been that the outbreak was a natural one and that the Soviet authorities were not lying when they disclaimed having an active offensive bio-warfare program, but the information uncovered in the investigation left no room for doubt.  Meselson’s wife, Jeanne Guillemin (who had participated in the investigation), detailed the events in a 1999 book. 
Russian Prime Minister Egor Gaidar issued a decree to begin conversion of Compound 19 in 1992. However, the facility continue its work. Not a single journalist was allowed to the premises since 1992; about 200 soldiers with Rottweiler dogs still patrol the complex; the classified activities were moved underground, and several new laboratories have been constructed and equipped to work with highly dangerous pathogens.  One of their current subjects was reportedly Bacillus anthracis strain H-4. Its virulence and antibiotic resistance have been dramatically increased using genetic engineering .
“the most deadly anthrax epidemic known, which occurred at a Soviet biological weapons facility located in Sverdlovsk (now Ekaterinberg, Russia) in 1979, where at least 68 people died. This incident was a focus of intense controversy and heated exchanges between Washington and Moscow during the 1980s…
the heritage of the Soviet biological warfare effort, which was unparalleled in scope and potential lethality, remains a problem today and tomorrow…
The first reports emerged in October 1979 by way of a Russian-language newspaper in Frankfurt, West Germany that was close to the Soviet emigre community, which ran a brief report lacking any details about a major germ accident leading to deaths estimated in the thousands taking place in Russia.(1) New details emerged in this same paper in early 1980, with reports of an explosion in April 1979 at a secret military installation near Sverdlovsk that released a large amount of anthrax spores into the air, again with a thousand people estimated dead from the disease. There were also reports that the area had been placed under Soviet military control with extensive decontamination efforts implemented. (For these early reports, see Documents No. 1-3)….
The reports of a possible anthrax outbreak in Sverdlovsk linked to an incident at a suspected Soviet biological warfare facility served to further deepen already worsening U.S.-Soviet relations, which were heading back toward a new Cold War in the wake of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In the 1980s during the Reagan administration, Sverdlovsk would become one of the major points in the U.S. indictment of the USSR, joining with accusations that Soviet allies were using a mycotoxin known as “yellow rain” against troops in Southeast Asia, to build the case that the Soviets were violating the ban on the use of biological weapons imposed by the 1972 Biological Warfare Convention, which both the U.S. and the USSR had signed (see Documents 20 and 21)…
The consensus in the U.S. government, as seen in CIA and DIA reports (see Documents 4-11), quickly came to focus on the more sinister explanation of an accident releasing anthrax spores into the air, producing a number of deaths from inhalation anthrax soon after the release, and later deaths from consumption of meat from anthrax-contaminated cattle. The analysts felt this explanation better fit the fact that the series of deaths continued for nearly two months, thus requiring the two different vectors for transmission of the disease to humans….
The Reagan administration kept up the steady drumbeat of accusations, putting the Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak within the larger picture of an alleged full-scale Soviet biological warfare effort, which continued to be a major concern for the subsequent Bush White House. (See Document Nos. 26 and 29) In retrospect, these allegations understated the problem, as U.S. intelligence and later the world found out from the Russian defector and former Deputy Director of the Soviet biological warfare operation Biopreparat named Kanatjan Alibekov, now known as Ken Alibek.(3) (See Document No. 32) New calls for a thorough investigation of the Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak began to appear in Russia under Mikhail Gorbachev’s call for glasnost. Articles such as “Military Secret: Reasons for the Tragedy in Sverdlovsk Must be Investigated,” by Natalya Zenova in Literaturnaya Gazeta, and “The Secret of the ‘Sarcophagus’,” by Sergey Parfenov in Rodina, both published in 1990, began the drumbeat of public pressure upon Moscow to come clean about the accident.(4) (See Documents Nos. 30 and 31)
The final breakthrough did not come until after the Soviet Union had ceased to exist at the end of 1991, and Boris Yeltsin came to power as the new head of the Russian government. Yeltsin had a personal connection to the Sverdlovsk issue, as he had been Communist Party chief in the region at the time of the anthrax outbreak, and he believed the KGB and military had lied to him about the true explanation. At a summit meeting with President George Bush in February 1992, Yeltsin told Bush that he agreed with U.S. accusations regarding Soviet violation of the 1972 biological weapons convention, that the Sverdlovsk incident was the result of an accident at a Soviet biological warfare installation, and promised to clean up this problem. In a May 27th interview, Yeltsin publicly revealed what he had told Bush in private:
“We are still deceiving you, Mr. Bush. We promised to eliminate bacteriological weapons. But some of our experts did everything possible to prevent me from learning the truth. It was not easy, but I outfoxed them. I caught them red-handed. I found two test sites. They are inoculating tracts of land with anthrax, allowing wild animals to go there and observing them…”(5)
In a subsequent interivew, Yeltsin expanded on the deception he says the Soviet military had played upon him and the world concerning the Sverdlovsk outbreak:
Interviewer: You knew about the development of bacteriological weapons in Sverdlovsk. But it was only recently that you first talked about it publicly. Why did you keep quiet all this time?
Yeltsin: First, nobody asked me about it. And, second, when I learned these developments were under way, I visited [the KGB chairman Yuriy] Andropov. . . . When there was an anthrax outbreak, the official conclusion stated it was carried by some dog, though later the KGB admitted that our military development was the cause. Andropov phoned [Minister of Defense Dimitriy] Ustinov and ordered these production facilities to be completely scrapped. I believed that this had been done. It turned out that the laboratories were simply moved to another oblast and development of the weapons continued. And I told Bush, [British prime minister John] Major, and [French president Francois] Mitterand this, that the program was under way. . . . I signed a decree setting up a special committee and banning the program. It was only after this that experts flew out specially and stopped the work.(6)
Yeltsin took steps in the spring of 1992 to address the long-standing Soviet denial of a biological weapons program and the Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak. On April 4, 1992, Yeltsin issued a decree promising pensions to the Sverdlovsk families which had suffered deaths from the 1979 anthrax outbreak.(7) Then, on April 11th, he issued a decree promising that Russia would adhere to the 1972 biological weapons convention. Soon after, Meselson led a team to Sverdlovsk in June 1992 (with a follow-up visit in August 1993) to investigate the incident, after Moscow had finally acquiesced in the visit. Here, they were allowed to see autopsy slides of a key area between the lungs of the Sverdlovsk victims, which clearly showed the characteristic signs of damage found in cases of inhalation anthrax. This joined with other new evidence: the rediscovery of information from 1950s anthrax studies that indicated inhalation anthrax could take weeks to become symptomatic, not just days, and data on wind patterns and the clustering of anthrax victims around Sverdlovsk, which supported the airborne vector explanation. The 1993 visit allowed Meselson to fill in the final gaps, placing the identified victims clearly within the plume of deadly anthrax spores that the data on wind patterns at the time indicated. As Meselson’s partner and spouse recounts:
“We have now circumscribed the time of common exposure to anthrax. The number of red dots we can plot on our spot map places nearly all of the victims within a narrow plume that stretches southeast from Compound 19 to the neighborhood past the ceramics factory. . . . we have clarified the relation of the timing of animal and human deaths and believe the exposure for both was nearly simultaneous. All the data – from interviews, documents, lists, autopsies, and wind reports – now fit, like pieces of a puzzle. What we know proves a lethal plume of anthrax came from Compound 19.”(8)
Meselson had finally came around to the view long held by the intelligence community when he published his final findings on the case in November 1994 in the journal Science.(9)
Meselson was prepared to conclude that the cause of death was airborne anthrax spores released from a military installation…
The U.S. intelligence position was also supported by Ken Alibek, who said Compound 19 was involved in the “industrial” production of anthrax. Regarding the actual cause of the release, information later obtained from people involved with the Soviet biological warfare effort revealed that the cause of the anthrax release in Sverdlovsk was the failure by maintenance personnel to replace a critical filter in a vent serving the anthrax production facility.
Though Yeltsin promised to “clean up” the toxic heritage of the Soviet biological warfare program, a decade later his successor, Vladimir Putin, and the United States are still coming to grips with the environmental and security consequences of this effort. The Sverdlovsk survivors have apparently never received the increased pensions promised by Yeltsin’s degree of April 1992, and the Russian defense establishment still denies the Sverdlovsk story…
Following the accident at Sverdlovsk, Moscow had established a new biological warfare R&D facility in the isolated city of Stepnogorsk in Kazakhstan, to fill the potential production gap…
The full extent of the Stepnogorsk operation – which had an estimated production capacity of 300 tons of anthrax spore in 220 days – and the environmental remediation challenge it presented did not become known to the U.S. until after Kazakhstan became an independent republic following the breakup of the Soviet Union and a U.S. team of scientists and officials were permitted to visit the facility in 1995.(12)”
As of 2001: “The effort to clean up the Soviet biological warfare installations continues today, as does the effort to determine if any of the sinister expertise or the products of this hellish operation has made its way into the hands of hostile powers or groups in the world”. Reproduced from http://www.nsarchive.org with the permission of the National Security Archive. See original 2001 article and FOIA documents here: https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB61/