AP 1000, BNFL, Canada, CANDU, China, Convention on Supplementary Compensation, CSC, EDF, environment, EPR, Fast Breeders, forge, France, heavy forging, IHI, India, Japan, Japan Steel Works, JSW, Kazakhstan, Kazatomprom, Le Creusot, nuclear, nuclear disaster, nuclear energy, nuclear industry, nuclear power, nuclear power plant, nuclear reactors, Putin, Russia, Toshiba, Toshiba Westinghouse, UK, uranium mining, USA, Westinghouse
Most of India’s nuclear reactors in existence and under construction are made in India based on the Canadian CANDU design. Other players are Russia and France, with the recently bankrupted Toshiba-owned Westinghouse trying to get AP1000 power stations built too. While Areva was bankrupted it is French state-owned so was more or less bailed out by selling it to French state-owned EDF.
“During the Cold War, India and the Soviet Union (USSR) enjoyed a strong strategic, military, economic and diplomatic relationship. After the collapse of the USSR, Russia inherited the close relationship with India, even as India improved its relations with the West after the end of the Cold War. Traditionally, the Indo-Russian strategic partnership has been built on five major components: politics, defence, civil nuclear energy, anti-terrorism co-operationand space“. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India–Russia_relations
After India exploded its first nuclear weapon in 1974 the US and Canada stopped assistance in the civilian nuclear sector.
More recently, India has signed civil nuclear power agreements with Argentina, Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Namibia, Russia, South Korea, the UK, the US and Vietnam.
India hasn’t signed the nuclear weapons non-proliferation treaty and yet has still been allowed access to both civilian nuclear power technology and fuel due to a 48 nation waiver in 2008. India sources its uranium supply from Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Argentina and Namibia. One private Indian company is exploring for uranium in Niger.
In India, nuclear power stations which are in existence, under construction, or planned include 2 small and old US BWR from 1969, only Switzerland’s Beznau I is older (by one month): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarapur_Atomic_Power_Station.
There are two Canadian CANDU reactors with 16 knockoff ones apparently developed by India, based on the CANDU design, and an additional 20 either newly operating, under construction, or planned, i.e. around 38 reactors. These are comparatively small reactors. There are 3 Fast Breeders under construction or planned, apparently developed-designed by India.
There are two Russian reactors operating (erratically), 2 under construction and 6 more planned, for a total of 10 reactors.
There are 6 French nuclear reactors (EBR) planned.
And, 12 reactors (AP1000) by Toshiba owned Westinghouse planned.
Most of the above information is based on the following article which was updated the 30 September 2017, but still may not be completely up to date. It is up to the reader to check the original and any updated info, as the point of this blog post is to give an idea of who is making the reactors and we are too busy right now: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power_in_India
The EBR’s have a higher capacity than the AP1000. The EBR projects appear to be moving along more than the AP1000s though this could be a false impression in which case number 3 should be Japan and 4 France.
Westinghouse is 87% Toshiba owned (majority owner); 10% owned by the government of Kazakhstan (Kazatomprom) and 3% owned by Japan’s IHI. While located in Pennsylvania, Westinghouse has been owned by Toshiba since October of 2006, over a decade ago. Prior to that it belonged to British Nuclear Fuels. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westinghouse_Electric_Company
Not only is Westinghouse foreign owned but they bring in a lot of foreign workers to the US. Between 2006 and 2016 Westinghouse (nuclear) applied for 144 temporary foreign worker permits (H1B) with only 1 denied and 29 green cars with 13 certified. This information is based on US DOL information and is available on the US government web site as well as many other web sites. According to Visadoor the top nationalities employed by Westinghouse (nuclear) are from Spain and China.
“Westinghouse says that the minimum requirement for making the largest AP1000 components is a 15,000 tonne press taking 350 tonne ingots. The very heavy forging capacity in operation today is in Japan (Japan Steel Works), China (China First Heavy Industries, China Erzhong, SEC), France (Le Creusot), and Russia (OMZ Izhora).” http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/nuclear-power-reactors/heavy-manufacturing-of-power-plants.aspx
Much of the construction will probably be local: “…vendor companies such as Westinghouse are focused on design, engineering and project management. There is demand from customers for maximum local supply, which often means a high level of technology transfer.” http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/nuclear-power-reactors/heavy-manufacturing-of-power-plants.aspx
“India signing the CSC (Convention on Supplementary Compensation) was pushed for by the US-India Business Council when India-American Richard Verma was their lobbyist. It finally was ratified a little over a year after Verma became US Ambassador to India.” https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2016/12/31/nuclear-convention-on-supplementary-compensation-csc-does-not-protect-people-in-india-or-elsewhere/
Apparently under the CSC accidents at Russian or French reactors will be paid by the US, Japan, India and other members, since Russia and France didn’t sign on!
Holtec, owned by India born, raised, and educated Kris Pal Singh is an “American” major player in the US nuclear industry. If India calls back its people then much of the so-called American nuclear industry would disappear as though by magic. There is even a Holtec in India, which predates Holtec USA.
“Today there are 29 CANDU reactors in use around the world, and 13 “CANDU-derivatives” in India, developed from the CANDU design. After India detonated a nuclear bomb in 1974, Canada stopped nuclear dealings with India.
* India: 2, 13 active CANDU-derivatives, and 3 CANDU-derivatives under construction.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CANDU_reactor#Foreign_sales