Abraham Lincoln, anarchists, anarchy, arson, Assassination of King Umberto I of Italy, assassination of President McKinley, censorship, Hungary, immigration, Italy, James Garfield, Leon Czolgosz, murder, National Security, New York, NY Police Lt. Joseph Petrosino, Sicily, Teddy Roosevelt, Treason, Tuscany, US Congress, US Postal Service, US President McKinley, US Secret Service, US Secret Service protection President
“Delivering the address – President’s Day” depicts an address by United States President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York on the day before his assassination. Crowd shot looking on the presidential gazebo. McKinley stands hatless, wearing a tuxedo, holding speech notes in his left hand., 5 Sept. 1901”.
US President William McKinley was shot on September 6, 1901 in Buffalo, New York by Leon Frank Czołgosz, a Detroit Michigan born anarchist. Czolgosz was executed seven weeks later on October 29, 1901. He was apparently inspired by Italian anarchist Gaetano Bresc, who on July 29, 1900 assassinated King Umberto I of Italy. Italian-American “New York City police lieutenant Joseph Petrosino believed that the same Italian-based anarchist group suspected of being responsible for King Umberto’s death was targeting McKinley, but his warnings were ignored.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Czolgosz Czolgosz’ father was a Hungarian born in Belarus (then Poland).
“William McKinley, the 25th president of the United States, was shot on the grounds of the Pan-American Exposition at the Temple of Music in Buffalo, New York, on September 6, 1901, six months into his second term. He was shaking hands with the public when anarchist Leon Czolgosz shot him twice in the abdomen. McKinley died on September 14 of gangrene caused by the wounds. He was the third American president to be assassinated, following Abraham Lincoln in 1865 and James A. Garfield in 1881.
McKinley enjoyed meeting the public and was reluctant to accept the security available to his office. Secretary to the President George B. Cortelyou feared that an assassination attempt would take place during a visit to the Temple of Music and took it off the schedule twice, but McKinley restored it each time.
Czolgosz had lost his job during the economic Panic of 1893 and turned to anarchism, a political philosophy adhered to by recent assassins of foreign leaders. He regarded McKinley as a symbol of oppression and was convinced that it was his duty as an anarchist to kill him. He was unable to get near the president during an earlier visit, but he shot him twice as McKinley reached to shake his hand in the reception line at the temple. One bullet grazed McKinley; the other entered his abdomen and was never found.
McKinley initially appeared to be recovering, but he took a turn for the worse on September 13 as his wounds became gangrenous, and he died early the next morning; he was succeeded by his vice president, Theodore Roosevelt. Czolgosz was sentenced to death in the electric chair, and Congress passed legislation to officially charge the Secret Service with the responsibility for protecting the president…“ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assassination_of_William_McKinley
“After President McKinley’s assassination: Congress informally requested Secret Service Presidential protection following the assassination of President William McKinley. In 1902, The Secret Service assumed full-time responsibility for protection of the President.” https://legacy.secretservice.gov/history.shtml
“ROOSEVELT WOULD BLOT OUT ANARCHY
IN SHORTEST MESSAGE IN HISTORY HE TELLS CONGRESS TO MINIMIZE IT
Says He Will Stop Practice of Sending Papers Through the Mails That Advocate Murder, Arson and Treason—Holds That the Present Laws Already Enable Him to Do That But Wants More Laws.
Washington, D. C.; April 10.—In one of the shortest mesages he has yet transmitted to congress, President Roosevelt yesterday called the attention of that body to the necessity for further legislation on the subject of anarchy. With the message he transmitted a report reviewing the legal phases of the question by Attorney General Bonaparte.
The message of the president follows: “To the senate and house of representatives: I herewith submit a letter from the department of justice which explains itself. Under this opinion, I hold that the existing statutes give the president power to prohibit the postmaster general from being used as an instrument in the commision of crime; that is, to prohibit the use of mails for the advocacy of murder, arson and treason, and I shall act upon such construction.
Unquestionably, however, there should be further legislation by congress in this matter.
When compared with suppression of anarchy, every other question sinks into insignificance.
An anarchist is an enemy of humanity, enemy of all mankind, and his is a deeper degree of criminality than any other. No immigrant is allowed to come to our shores if he is an anarchist, and no paper published here or abroad should be permitted circulation in this country if it propogates anarchistic opinions.”
The Aberdeen Democrat. (Aberdeen, South Dakota), 10 April 1908. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.” https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn98069055/1908-04-10/ed-1/seq-1/
“Czolgosz’s ancestors probably came from what is now Belarus. His father may have immigrated to the US in the 1860s from Astravyets (Ostrowiec) near Wilno. When he arrived in the United States, he gave his ethnicity as Hungarian and changed the spelling of his surname from Zholhus (Жолгусь, Żołguś) to Czolgosz.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Czolgosz
Zholhus sounds like German Zollhaus and there were many German speakers who settled in Budapest (Danube Germans).
Bresci was born in Tuscany: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaetano_Bresci
Giuseppe Petrosino, on the other hand, was born in Padula, Campania, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Now Italy):
“In 1909, Petrosino made plans to travel to Palermo, Sicily on a secret mission. A recently passed federal law allowed the U.S. government to deport any alien who had lived in the country for less than three years if that alien had been convicted of a crime in another country. Petrosino was armed with a long list of known Italian criminals who had taken up residence in the United States, and intended to get enough evidence of their criminal pasts to throw them out of the country once and for all. However, there were already signs that the secrecy and success of the mission was in jeopardy: A few weeks before his departure, New York newspaper articles cited anonymous sources, probably New York City police commissioner Theodore A. Bingham, hinting at the purpose of Petrosino’s covert mission and the U.S. Ambassador to Italy, Lloyd Carpenter Griscom, expressed concerns directly to Petrosino that he would be recognized in Sicily by “perhaps a thousand criminals”… On March 12, 1909, after arriving in Palermo, Sicily, Petrosino was invited to a night time rendezvous in the city’s Piazza Marina in order to receive information about the Mafia. While waiting for his “informant”, Petrosino was shot in the face by two assailants…” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Petrosino