Abolition, abolition Jamaica, ancestry, Bustamante, East Indians, Hamilton Brown, immigrant workers, indentured servants, Indo-Jamaicans, Ireland, Irish in Jamaica, Jamaica, Kamala ain't black, Kamala Harris, Kamala Harris slave ancestor, Manely, slavery, slavery Jamaica, UK
If, as is claimed by researchers, Kamala Harris’ ancestress was born in June 1839 to slave-owner Hamilton Brown and an unnamed woman, then her ancestress was born to a free non-slave woman. Slavery was formally abolished on August 1, 1834, in Jamaica, and the subsequent indenture system ended August 1, 1838 (over 10 months prior to her birth).
Since Hamilton Brown brought over 300 people from Ireland to Jamaica between 1835 and 1840, in an attempt to replace former slaves with more docile workers, her ancestress may have been the child of an Irish woman and Hamilton Brown. The child was named Mary Melvina Brown. As Melvina is a Scottish name, her ancestress could have been the child of an Irish born Scottish woman and Hamilton Brown.
Dan MacGuill, in an article for Snopes, implies that Kamala Harris’ father doesn’t know his own family history, which is absurd and disrespectful. Because MacGuill couldn’t quickly trace the ancestry, he calls her father’s own words “unproven”. In our personal experience, Jamaicans of that generation and social class know their family histories, which are often complex and multi-racial, very well. Not only would her father have oral tradition, but he may have a family Bible. 
Think, for instance, of Jamaica’s first Prime Minister:
“Sir William Alexander Clarke Bustamante GBE PC (24 February 1884 – 6 August 1977) was a Jamaican politician and labour leader, who, in 1962 became the first prime minister of Jamaica… He was born as Alexander Clarke to Mary Clarke (née Wilson), a woman of mixed race, and her husband Robert Constantine Clarke, an Irish Catholic planter, in Blenheim, Hanover” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Bustamante
Consider, too, 4th Prime Minister Michael Manley’s mother:
“Born Edna Swithenbank on 28 February 1900, Edna Manley lived out her early years in England with her cleric father, Harvey Swithenbank, her mixed Jamaican mother, Ellie Shearer, and her 8 siblings…” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Manley
Consider Michael Manley’s father, Norman Manley, First Premier of Jamaica:
“Norman Washington Manley was born to mixed-race parents in Roxborough in Jamaica’s Manchester Parish. His father, Thomas Albert Samuel Manley was a small businessman born in Porus, Manchester, Jamaica in 1852. His mother, Margaret Shearer, was the daughter of a mixed-race woman and her Irish husband, a pen-keeper (animal husbandry). His grandparents were Samuel Manley, a trader who had migrated from Yorkshire, and Esther Anderson Stone.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Manley
MacGuill fails to note that if Kamala Harris’ ancestress was born in June 1839 to Hamilton Brown and an unnamed woman, as he suggests, then her ancestress was born to a free non-slave woman. Slavery was formally abolished on August 1, 1834 and the subsequent indenture system ended August 1, 1838.
As Hamilton Brown brought over 300 people from Ireland to Jamaica between 1835 and 1840, in an attempt to replace former slaves with more docile workers, her ancestress may have been the child of an Irish woman and Hamilton Brown. The child was named Mary Melvina Brown. As Melvina is a Scottish name, her ancestress could have been the child of an Irish born Scottish woman and Hamilton Brown.
Demonstrating total ignorance, MacGuill supposes that her ancestress had to be a slave who was raped (even though slavery was abolished). Even under slavery there were consensual interracial relationships, though the frequency is unknown. More generally, women didn’t get counted much, in those days, unless, perhaps, they were of a high social status. So, it’s often very difficult to trace the maternal lineage in a pedigree.
Workers from India were brought to Jamaica starting in 1845, in another attempt to replace the former slaves with a less demanding labor force, after the Irish resisted.
Any mixed heritage may have come into her family later. Frankly, we do not know.
What really matters is that her history is distinct from African Americans, in the United States, in almost every way. It also matters that her father believes that Hamilton Brown is his ancestor, and makes no mention of African or indigenous ancestors https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Jamaicans
With the reported help of “Rachel Lang, a researcher at University College London’s “Legacies of British Slave-Ownership” project”, MacGuill says that they have “managed to piece together” facts, which include: “A “Hamilton Brown Jnr.” (likely the Antrim slave owner) had a daughter named Mary Melvina Brown, born to an unnamed woman, and baptised on June 4, 1839. The father’s residence was listed as Grier Park (an estate Brown once owned), and the father’s occupation was listed as “Planter.”  It would seem that Jnr is most likely his son, but it doesn’t really matter either way.
“Slavery was abolished in Jamaica decades earlier than in the United States. An 1833 law ruled that slavery would be abolished as of August 1, 1834, though they were bound as indentures until 1838.
Black and mixed-race Jamaicans were given the right to vote in 1840. According to Wikipedia by “the end of the 19th century and in the early years of the 20th century, the crown began to allow some Jamaicans – mostly local merchants, urban professionals, and artisans—into the appointed councils”. (Apparently they mean black and mixed-race Jamaicans). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Jamaica#Emancipation
Kamala Harris’ ancestor, Hamilton Brown, “was a member of the House of Assembly of Jamaica in 1820 and represented Saint Ann Parish in that assembly for 22 years.
In 1832, he met Henry Whiteley on his trip to Jamaica to whom he argued that Jamaican slaves were better off than the poor of England and therefore the British government should not interfere with the way the Jamaican planters managed their slaves; Whiteley went on to witness harsh and arbitrary whipping of slaves at the plantations that he visited during his stay.
After the emancipation of slaves throughout the British Empire in 1833 by the Slavery Abolition Act, Brown was active in trying to recruit Irish people to work in Jamaica. In December 1835, 121 people from Ballymoney, Antrim, set off from Belfast for Jamaica on the James Ray, a brig owned by Brown. They settled in Saint Ann Parish.
In 1836 he brought a further 185 Irish people to Saint Ann. An effort by planters in 1840 to encourage large-scale Irish migration to Jamaica to settle lands that might otherwise be occupied by newly-freed slaves, failed after the project was criticised in Ireland as potentially making slaves of the migrants” https://web.archive.org/web/20190226105021/https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamilton_Brown
Updated here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamilton_Brown
Unlike US planters, the Jamaican planters were paid for freeing their slaves. Hamilton Brown had over 2000 slaves and managed an additional 2000. Thus Kamala Harris’ ancestress, whether white, or mixed race, would almost certainly have gotten some sort of support and inheritance that the majority lacked, since she was apparently a recognized child of Hamilton Brown Jr. These lists show where British (Jamaican) slave descendants should look for their reparations. Haitian slave owners were also reimbursed.
Kamala is half Hindu Brahmin and Jamaican white plus “ethnicity unknown”. We estimate her to be, at most, between 12.5% and 20% African. If Kamala’s mother were “Caucasian”, as claimed on Kamala’s birth certificate, Kamala would have been legally white throughout much of US history, and in the short-lived period of the Jim Crow “one drop” rule, she would have been able to pass for white. Given Jamaica’s history, her “ethnicity unknown” ancestors could be a mix of immigrants from a India, Ireland, etc. However,what matters most is that her family was part of Jamaica’s mixed race elite, and her heritage is distinct from African Americans.
“Before and during the centuries of slavery, people had interracial relationships, both forced and voluntary. In the antebellum years, free people of mixed race (free people of color) were considered legally white if individuals had less than one-eighth or one-quarter African ancestry (depending on the state). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One-drop_rule
“In 1895 in South Carolina during discussion, George D. Tillman said,
It is a scientific fact that there is not one full-blooded Caucasian on the floor of this convention. Every member has in him a certain mixture of… colored blood…It would be a cruel injustice and the source of endless litigation, of scandal, horror, feud, and bloodshed to undertake to annul or forbid marriage for a remote, perhaps obsolete trace of Negro blood. The doors would be open to scandal, malice, and greed.
All N****rs, More or Less!”, The News and Courier, October 17, 1895.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One-drop_rule
 “Did U.S. Sen. Kamala Harris’ Ancestor Own Slaves in Jamaica?”
DAN MACGUILL, 2 JULY 2019, Snopes https://archive.li/I6S7f
 Additional Notes
Based on one genealogy page Joseph Alexander Harris (b 1874) had a relationship with Miss Chrishy (Christiana Brown), who was a seamstress born in 1888, who, in turn, had a son named Oscar Joseph Harris (b. 1914). Oscar Joseph Harris married to Beryl Christie and who had Kamala’s father, Donald J. Harris, born in 1938. Joseph Alexander Harris is said by the same genealogy page to have married Caroline Elita Beckford in 1924. Kamala’s father wrote: “My roots go back, within my lifetime, to my paternal grandmother Miss Chrishy (née Christiana Brown, descendant of Hamilton Brown who is on record as plantation and slave owner and founder of Brown’s Town) and to my maternal grandmother Miss Iris (née Iris Finegan, farmer and educator, from Aenon Town and Inverness, ancestry unknown to me). The Harris name comes from my paternal grandfather Joseph Alexander Harris, land-owner and agricultural ‘produce’ exporter (mostly pimento or all-spice), who died in 1939… Miss Iris… was a tough farming woman who ran the cane farm at Thatch Walk (near Aenon Town) jointly owned with her husband “Mr Christie”. https://archive.li/https://www.jamaicaglobalonline.com/kamala-harris-jamaican-heritage/
Based on the pictures, available, and assuming the pictures-info are accurate, Miss Chrishy, and Miss Iris appear to have African ancestry, though they could have roots in India. They may also have indigenous Caribbean and Irish ancestry. Oscar Joseph Harris looks white, or almost white.
There is a Hamilton Brown who died in 1918 who married a Mary Melvina Brown, according to an online family tree. Their child was Mabel Melvina who died in 1935. https://archive.li/sq913. https://archive.li/https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/130572061/hamilton-brown In 1826, there was a slave named James Hamilton Brown who was born in 1825.
1776-1843 Hamilton Brown – (Apparently Anglo-Irish from Antrim)
Link – http://www.nlj.gov.jm/rai/place-names/Place%20Names%20of%20St.%20Ann.pdf
Referenced in the above article: Carl H. Senior, “Bountied European Immigration into Jamaica, 1834-1842“, unpublished Ph. D. thesis, University of the West Indies, 1977, Ch. l, P. 19: Appendi x
Link intentionally broken between net and org. Please patch back together to get web site. https://gw.geneanet. org/tdowling?lang=en&p=joseph+alexander&n=harris
Arbuthnot estate co-executor with Harris ancestor Hamilton Brown is
http://wwwdepts-live.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/estates/ John Chrystie: http://wwwdepts-live.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/2146641223
NB: Most of this article was written in July 2019. We dropped the topic, after she dropped out of the Presidential race. We have tried to bring attention to a much more important point, but have been largely ignored: Her family connections in India are a national security risk https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2020/09/26/kamala-harris-uncle-brags-about-india-deceiving-the-cia-with-nuclear-weapons-tests-kamala-deceives-biden-about-her-uncles-advisory-role-to-indias-ministry-of-defence/ Her bad record of covering up for the rich and powerful, while persecuting the powerless prove that she is an heir to Hamilton Brown in spirit, whatever her ancestry. She is also a reflection of the worst of Hindu Brahmins.