Major Hurricanes Affecting SW Louisiana & SE Texas from 1851 – ca 2008 https://www.weather.gov/media/lch/tropical/HPW1-SUN.pdf
Hurricane Laura is tied with the 1856 Last Island hurricane as the strongest Atlantic hurricane to make landfall in the U.S. state of Louisiana.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Laura
Hurricane Laura Hits Louisiana with 150 mph Winds; Catastrophic Storm Surge; Strongest Hurricane to Hit Louisiana Since 1856 https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2020/08/27/hurricane-laura-hits-louisiana-with-150-mph-winds-catastrophic-storm-surge-strongest-hurricane-to-hit-louisiana-since-1856/
“NORTHERN EYEWALL OF LAURA MOVING OVER CAMERON PARISH…
…CATASTROPHIC STORM SURGE, EXTREME WINDS, AND FLASH FLOODING OCCURING IN SOUTHWESTERN LOUISIANA…
12:00 AM CDT Thu Aug 27
Location: 29.5°N 93.3°W
Moving: NNW at 15 mph
Min pressure: 938 mb
Max sustained: 150 mph“https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/text/refresh/MIATCUAT3+shtml/270456.shtml
Laura advisory archives https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2020/LAURA.shtml?
“Category 4 is the second-highest hurricane classification category on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, and storms that are of this intensity maintain maximum sustained winds of 113–136 knots (130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h). Based on the Atlantic hurricane database, 143 hurricanes have attained Category 4 hurricane status since 1851, the start of modern meteorological record keeping. Category 4 storms are considered extreme hurricanes.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Category_4_Atlantic_hurricanes
The maps and articles below cover hurricanes from 1851-ca 2008. There may be others since 2008. Thus, we added links for hurricane Harvey and a list of Louisiana and Texas hurricanes, above, as well as Laura.
“Hurricanes Affecting SW Louisiana & SE Texas since 1851
SW Louisiana Hurricane History
Hurricane Ike: September 12-13, 2008. Very large category two hurricane that made landfall at Galveston Texas. Storm surge values were 12-16 feet across western Cameron parish, which was slightly higher than that observed during Rita only three years earlier. Across eastern Cameron, Vermilion, Iberia, and St. Mary parishes, storm surgevalues ranged between 8-12 feet.
Hurricane Gustav: September 1, 2008. Large category two hurricane that made landfall across Terrebonne parish in Southeast Louisiana, but continued northwest across the Atchafalaya Basin, spreading category one hurricane force winds across South Central Louisiana. Due to the storm making landfall east of the region, storm surge values were only 4-5 feet across St.Mary, Iberia, and Vermilion parishes.
Hurricane Humberto: September 12-13, 2007. Very small category one hurricane that made landfall between High Island and Sea Rim State Park in Jefferson county, Texas. Due to the small size,storm surge values were only 3-4 feet across central and western Cameron parish.
Hurricane Rita: September 23-24, 2005. Very large category three hurricane that made landfall between Johnson’s Bayou and Sabine Pass, affected most of Southwest Louisiana and Southeast Texas with hurricane force winds. Storm surge values across Southwest Louisiana were 12-18 feet across most of Cameron parish, and 10-12 feet across most of Vermilion parish, which was the worst storm surge flooding recorded during the last 150+ years of record keeping.
Hurricane Lili: October 3, 2002. Category one hurricane that made landfall at Intracoastal City in Vermilion Parish. Storm surge values were 10-12 feet across Iberia and St. Maryparishes.
Hurricane Andrew: August 26, 1992. Category three hurricane that made landfall west-southwest of Morgan City in St. Mary parish. Storm surge values were around 8 feet acrossIberia and St.Mary parishes, whichwere lower than expected due toAndrew paralleling the coast at landfall.
Hurricane Bonnie: June 26, 1986. Very small category one hurricane that made landfall between High Island and Sea Rim State Park in Jefferson County. Storm surge values were 3-4 feet across central and western Cameron Parish.
Hurricane Juan: October 28-30, 1985. Very large hybrid-type category one hurricane which approached Vermilion parish on the 28th but stayed offshore to make a cyclonic loop, eventually making landfall in St. Mary parish. Juan made another cyclonic loop inland across South Central Louisiana, moving offshore to affect Southeast Louisiana and the Florida Panhandle. Storm surge values fluctuated between 3-6 feet across Vermilion, Iberia, and St.Mary parishes.
Hurricane Danny: August 15, 1985. Category one hurricane that made landfall between Grand Chenier in Cameron parish and Pecan Island in Vermilion parish. Storm surge values ranged 5-8 feet across Vermilion, Iberia, and St.Mary parishes.
Hurricane Carmen: September 8, 1974. Category three hurricane that made landfall across St. Mary parish, spread category two conditions across Iberia parish, with category one conditions across Vermilion, Lafayette and Acadia parishes. Storm surge ranged 4-6 feet across Iberia and St.Mary parishes.
Hurricane Edith: September 16, 1971. Category two hurricane at landfall across Cameron and Vermilion parishes, and spread category one conditions across Iberia, St Mary, Lafayette, Acadia, and St.Martin Parishes. Storm surge values of 6 feet at Sabine Pass,with 8+ feet across Cameron and Vermilion parishes.
Hurricane Hilda: October 3-4, 1964. Category three hurricane landfall across St. Mary parish, where 6+ foot storm surge occurred at the Atchafalaya River. Further west, storm surge ranged between 3-5 feet across Iberia and Vermilion parishes.
Hurricane Carla: September 10-12, 1961. Extremely large category four hurricane (circulation covered the entire Gulf of Mexico at one point) made landfall across the Central Texas coast. Due tothe large sizeof the storm,storm surge values of 7-8 feet were common acrossSouthwest Louisiana.
Hurricane Audrey: June 26-27, 1957. Very large and deadly category four hurricane, with a 40 mile wide eye, made landfall from Sabine Pass to Cameron, and affected most of Southwest Louisiana and Southeast Texas with hurricane force winds. Storm surge values of 10-14 feet occurred across most of Cameron Parish, and 7-10 feet across Vermilion, Iberia, and St. Mary Parishes. Unfortunately, over 500 direct fatalities was attributed to Audrey, mainly across Cameron and Vermilion parishes due to storm surge.
SE Texas Hurricane History
Hurricane Ike: September 12-13, 2008. Very large category two hurricane that made landfall at Galveston Texas. Hurricane force winds were recorded over most of Southeast Texas. However, Ike will be remembered for the record storm surge values (NAVD 88) from 14 feet near Sabine Pass with 11 to 12 feet across Sabine Lake, flooding portions of Bridge City and Orange. Port Arthur was spared the storm surge thanks to its 14-17 foot seawall. However, the remaining southern half of Jefferson county was inundated, with estimated high water marks reaching 18 to just over 19 feet to the south and east of High Island. This is the worst storm surge flooding recorded across this region during the last 150+ years of record keeping. See the Hurricane Ike Story for SoutheastTexasonpages21-22.
Hurricane Humberto: September 12-13, 2007. Very small category one hurricane that made landfall between High Island and Sea Rim State Park in Jeffersoncounty,Texas. Due tothe small size,storm surge values were4to5feetacrossJeffersoncounty,3to4feetacrossSabineLake.
Hurricane Rita: September 23-24, 2005. Very large category three hurricane that made landfall between Johnson’s Bayou and Sabine Pass, affecting the entire Louisiana and Southeast Texas coasts. Hurricane force winds were recorded from Jasper, Kountze, and High Island, Texas eastward into Louisiana. Stormsurgevalues 8to10 feet(NAVD 88)acrosseasternJeffersonandOrange countiesinSoutheastTexas.
Tropical Storm Frances: September 9-12, 1998. Very large tropical stormthat made landfall across the CentralTexas coast, but thecirculation coveringthe entire northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Every road in Sabine Pass was under water, except Highway 87 right in front of the school. Highway 87 flooded south of Port Arthur to Sabine Pass, and north of Port Arthur to Bridge City. Many locations further inland across western Jefferson county was also under water. The extensivefloodingwas duetotidesrunningbetween3½tonear5feetfor2½days.
Hurricane Chantal: August 1, 1989, Hurricane Jerry: October 15, 1989. Very small category one hurricanes that made landfall at High Island and Galvestonrespectively.Storm surgevalueswere4-5feetacrossJeffersoncounty.
Hurricane Bonnie: June 26, 1986. Very small category one hurricane that made landfall between High Island and Sea Rim State Park in Jefferson County. Storm surge values were 6-7 feet across Jefferson county.
Hurricane Alicia: August 17-18, 1983. Small Category three hurricane that made landfall across the Upper Texas coast just southwest of Galveston near Freeport. Storm surge values were just over 5 feet at Sabine Pass with higher values likely across Coastal Western Jefferson county.
Hurricane Carla: September 10-12, 1961. Extremely large category four hurricane (circulation covered the entire Gulf of Mexico atone point)made landfall across the Central Texas coast. Due to the large size of the storm, storm surge values of 7 to 8 feet were common across coastal Jefferson and Orange Counties.
Hurricane Audrey: June 26-27, 1957. Very large category four hurricane, with a 40 mile wide eye, made landfall from Sabine Pass to Cameron. Audrey affected the entire Louisiana andSoutheast Texas coasts.Stormsurgevalues of 8to10feet wererecorded acrossEasternJefferson and Orange Counties in SoutheastTexas.
Storm #2: August 17, 1915. Very large category four hurricane made landfall across western Galveston Island Texas. Due to the large size of the storm, stormsurgeof9to11feetwerecommon acrosscoastalareasofJeffersonandOrangecounties.
Storm #1: September 8-9, 1900. Category four hurricane made landfall across western Galveston Island Texas. Storm surge for Jefferson and Orange countiesnotavailable.
Hurricane History of Southwest Louisiana & Southeast Texas
Additional information can be found on our Tropical page:
Southwest Louisiana Hurricane Guide
Southeast Texas Hurricane Guide
National Weather Service 500 Airport Blvd. #115 Lake Charles, LA 70607 337-477-5285 http://www.srh.weather.gov/lch
Tropical Storms & Hurricanes Affecting SW Louisiana & SE Texas since 1851
“Louisiana Hurricane History:
Late 19th Century
David Roth* National Weather Service Lake Charles, LA
August 26th, 1852: A tropical storm formed north of the Dominican Republic on the 19th, then moved west through the Florida Straits. In the Gulf, movement became northwest and the hurricane made landfall at the Mouth of the Pascagoula River on the night of the 25th. It was hardly noticed on Lake Pontchartrain.
Four new channels were cut through Chandeleur Island. The storm claimed the 55 foot tall Chandeleur Island lighthouse and replaced it with a broad 10 foot deep lagoon (Cipra). The keepers were rescued three days later, on the verge of starvation. The schooners Josephine and Walter M. went ashore on Cat Island.
September 15-16th, 1855: A storm swept out of the Gulf across Fort St. Phillip and Lake Borgne, before moving into Mississippi. It was considered the worst since 1819 and was felt as far east as Apalachicola Bay. At Proctorville (Yscloski), bathhouses and the wharf were consumed by the waves that ran inland. Water was as deep as 4 feet on Proctor’s Landing. At Lake Borgne, water began to rise during the afternoon of the 15th. A “smart breeze” was blowing by sunset. Winds had increased to a “perfect hurricane” by midnight. A number of homes fell victim.
At Cat Island, the light keeper’s dwelling was wrecked and its lighthouse was in “severe peril”. Most everything along the Mississippi coast was swept away with the tide. The Atchafalaya and Ship Shoal lightships were torn from their moorings and grounded. Both lightships were repaired and returned to service in 1856 (Cipra). The ship Venice was pushed into the banks of the Mississippi River and sprang a leak by the strong gale. The steamer J.S. Chenoweth sank in the Mighty Mississippi.
August 10-12th, 1856: Hurricane strikes Isle Derniere, Last Island, a pleasure resort south- southwest of New Orleans. The highest points were under 5 feet of water. The resort hotel and surrounding gambling establishments were destroyed, over 200 people perished, and the island was left void of vegetation and split in half. Only one terrified cow survived on the Isle. Last Island is now only a haven for pelicans and other sea birds.
The rain total at New Orleans reached 13.14″. Every house in the town of Abbeville was leveled, including the St. Mary Magdalen Church. Rains from the storm flooded the Mermentau River and destroyed crops along the bottom lands. Area rice fields in Plaquemines parish were under several feet of salt water. Nearly all rice was lost. Orange trees were stripped of their fruit. The steamer Nautilus foundered. The lone survivor cling to a bale of cotton and washed ashore sometime later.
1860: Number 1, August 11th On the fourth anniversary of the Last Island disaster, another hurricane made landfall in Southeast Louisiana. The Mississippi rose 3 feet during the storm. The old site of Proctorville, now Yscolski, had hardly a house left standing… its lighthouse also leveled. The Bayou St. John lighthouse was destroyed. The Cat Island lighthouse was demolished, along with its keeper’s dwelling. The Island was inundated, causing the loss of 300 cows.
Storm surges extended eastward along the entire Mississippi coast. The sugarcane crop laid in ruin. Trees were uprooted throughout the Plaquemines and Balize (Pilottown). Up to ten feet of water inundated the region. Crops of rice and corn were entirely ruined. The influence of the storm extended eastward to Pensacola, where it rained 3.03″ and a strong gale ensued on the 11th. Over 47 people died…damaged totaled $260,000.
1860: Number 2, September 14-15th Another hurricane struck near the Mouth of the Mississippi, worst at Balize (Pilottown). The gale raged for about 20 hours across extreme Southeast Louisiana, and large hail fell. Every building in Balize was either blown down by the wind or washed away by the storm surge. The third Bayou St. John lighthouse was damaged beyond repair. Lower portions of Plaquemines parish were covered by several feet of water, drowning several people. Tides rose to 6 feet above the high tide mark.
All wharves along the south side of Lake Pontchartrain were destroyed. But it was no better in Mississippi…the lighthouse at Bay St. Louis was swept away along with one of its hotels. In total, damages exceeded $1 million.
1860: Number 3, October 2-3rd A third hurricane within seven weeks produced severe damage to houses, businesses, boats, and crops as far inland as Baton Rouge. The storm made landfall in the Atchafalaya Swamp and swept northeast. It only carried with it a 12 to 15 inch storm surge at Port a la Hache, likely due to its rapid movement.
Whatever was left of the sugar crop, along with the machinery employed in producing it, laid in ruin. Heavy losses were reported in Vermilion, Feliciana, Alvermarle, Bayou Lafourche, Pointe Coupee, St. Bernards, and Terrebonne as well. Eleven miles of railroad track were washed out near New Orleans, where the rain total was 5.02″ during the storm.
The system continued northeast and produced the highest winds Natchez had seen since the Tornado of 1840. Trees fell in great numbers in Concordia Parish as they experienced stiff north winds. Gales were seen eastward to Pensacola, as with the first storm in 1860.
Just on the Louisiana side of the Sabine river lies a vast expanse of marshland. Within this region is the town of Johnson’s Bayou (now known as Johnson Bayou). French fur traders traversed the area during the 1700’s to barter with the local Native American tribe, the Attakapas. The first permanent settler was Daniel Johnson, who arrived in 1790. Cotton was the town’s primary crop. This location was cutoff and virtually isolated from the outside world until 1960.
September 13th, 1865: Hurricane strikes extreme Southwestern Louisiana. Considered similar to Audrey in strength, but smaller in areal extent. Niblet’s Bluff was completely destroyed. One person died in Johnson Bayou where many homes were leveled. The area around Calcasieu (Big) Lake was inundated by the storm surge. Grand Chenier was also put under water by the storm, where several more people died. Fragments of furniture and homes were found afloat several miles up the Calcasieu. Twenty-five people lost their lives to the hurricane, most at Leesburg (now Cameron).
The tides were high as far east as the Mississippi River, where rains and high winds were noted on the 13th. Extensive flooding occurred in Feliciana Parish. The entire Balize settlement and its “Pilottown” were abandoned years before. Everything left in the area was obliterated during the storm. The ship Lone Star was wrecked while in Galveston Bay, and vessels trying to save the survivors almost foundered as well.
October 22-23rd, 1865: Hurricane affected Louisiana coast.
* Author’s current affiliation: NWS National Centers for Environmental Prediction – Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, Camp Springs, Maryland” https://web.archive.org/web/20080521144526/http://www.srh.noaa.gov/lch/research/lalate19hu.php