adverse effects marijuana, Bernie Sanders, IQ loss, marijuana and psychiatric conditions, marijuana psychosis, Marijuana use, Pot, pot smoking, recreational marijuana, second hand smoke, Stop Bernie Sanders
Bernie Sanders wants to legalize marijuana by executive order in the first 100 days. This will result in non-smokers being forcibly exposed, as well. It apparently has more health impacts than cigarette smoke. Recreational use is going to have a lot of health related costs and economic costs over time.
This is his magic solution, it seems, to empty political promises, which are unfunded or underfunded. His team doesn’t seem able to tell the difference between $1 trillion and $60 trillion, and appear to think they can reuse the same trillion more than once. If everyone’s high they won’t notice. Just as non-smokers are forced to breathe cigarette smoke to this day, they will also be forcibly exposed to marijuana smoke. Vermont’s got pot-smoking hippies, it seems, alongside its military industrial complex. Tiny Vermont is more than cheese. Who knew? 🙄 Why didn’t they just keep that nuclear waste, then, that they dumped on Texas? This is but one example of the sort of damage that the President can inflict due to executive overreach. Some damage is hard to repair.
“Adverse Consequences of Marijuana Use
Acute (present during intoxication)
* Impaired short-term memory
* Impaired attention, judgment, and other cognitive functions
* Impaired coordination and balance
* Increased heart rate
* Anxiety, paranoia
* Psychosis (uncommon)
Persistent (lasting longer than intoxication, but may not be permanent)
* Impaired learning and coordination
* Sleep problems
Long-term (cumulative effects of repeated use)
* Potential for marijuana addiction
* Impairments in learning and memory with potential loss of IQ*
* Increased risk of chronic cough, bronchitis
* Increased risk of other drug and alcohol use disorders
* Increased risk of schizophrenia in people with genetic vulnerability**
*Loss of IQ among individuals with persistent marijuana use disorder who began using heavily during adolescence
**These are often reported co-occurring symptoms/disorders with chronic marijuana use. However, research has not yet determined whether marijuana is causal or just associated with these mental problems.”
“Is there a link between marijuana use and psychiatric disorders?
Several studies have linked marijuana use to increased risk for psychiatric disorders, including psychosis (schizophrenia), depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders, but whether and to what extent it actually causes these conditions is not always easy to determine.32
Recent research suggests that smoking high-potency marijuana every day could increase the chances of developing psychosis by nearly five times compared to people who have never used marijuana.114 The amount of drug used, the age at first use, and genetic vulnerability have all been shown to influence this relationship. The strongest evidence to date concerns links between marijuana use and psychiatric disorders in those with a preexisting genetic or other vulnerability.62
Research using longitudinal data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions examined associations between marijuana use, mood and anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders. After adjusting for various confounding factors, no association between marijuana use and mood and anxiety disorders was found. The only significant associations were increased risk of alcohol use disorders, nicotine dependence, marijuana use disorder, and other drug use disorders.63
Recent research (see “AKT1 Gene Variations and Psychosis”) has found that people who use marijuana and carry a specific variant of the AKT1 gene, which codes for an enzyme that affects dopamine signaling in the striatum, are at increased risk of developing psychosis. The striatum is an area of the brain that becomes activated and flooded with dopamine when certain stimuli are present. One study found that the risk of psychosis among those with this variant was seven times higher for those who used marijuana daily compared with those who used it infrequently or used none at all.64
Another study found an increased risk of psychosis among adults who had used marijuana in adolescence and also carried a specific variant of the gene for catechol-O-methyltransferase(COMT), an enzyme that degrades neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine65 (see “Genetic Variations in COMT Influences the Harmful Effects of Abused Drugs”). Marijuana use has also been shown to worsen the course of illness in patients who already have schizophrenia. As mentioned previously, marijuana can produce an acute psychotic reaction in non-schizophrenic people who use marijuana, especially at high doses, although this fades as the drug wears off.
Inconsistent and modest associations have been reported between marijuana use and suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide among teens.66,67 Marijuana has also been associated with an amotivational syndrome, defined as a diminished or absent drive to engage in typically rewarding activities. Because of the role of the endocannabinoid system in regulating mood and reward, it has been hypothesized that brain changes resulting from early use of marijuana may underlie these associations, but more research is needed to verify that such links exist and better understand them“. See more links and details here: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/marijuana/there-link-between-marijuana-use-psychiatric-disorders
Cannabis use and the risk of developing a psychotic disorder
Hall, Wayne, and Louisa Degenhardt. “Cannabis use and the risk of developing a psychotic disorder.” World psychiatry : official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) vol. 7,2 (2008): 68-71.
WAYNE HALL and LOUISA DEGENHARDT
1School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston Road, Herston QLD 4006, Australia
2National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australiahttps ://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2424288
“What are the effects of secondhand exposure to marijuana smoke?
People often ask about the possible psychoactive effect of exposure to secondhand marijuana smoke and whether a person who has inhaled secondhand marijuana smoke could fail a drug test. Researchers measured the amount of THC in the blood of people who do not smoke marijuana and had spent 3 hours in a well-ventilated space with people casually smoking marijuana; THC was present in the blood of the nonsmoking participants, but the amount was well below the level needed to fail a drug test.
Another study that varied the levels of ventilation and the potency of the marijuana found that some nonsmoking participants exposed for an hour to high-THC marijuana (11.3 percent THC concentration) in an unventilated room showed positive urine assays in the hours directly following exposure 81; a follow-up study showed that nonsmoking people in a confined space with people smoking high-THC marijuana reported mild subjective effects of the drug—a “contact high”—and displayed mild impairments on performance in motor tasks.82
The known health risks of secondhand exposure to cigarette smoke—to the heart or lungs, for instance—raise questions about whether secondhand exposure to marijuana smoke poses similar health risks. At this point, very little research on this question has been conducted.
A 2016 study in rats found that secondhand exposure to marijuana smoke affected a measure of blood vessel function as much as secondhand tobacco smoke, and the effects lasted longer.83 One minute of exposure to secondhand marijuana smoke impaired flow-mediated dilation (the extent to which arteries enlarge in response to increased blood flow) of the femoral artery that lasted for at least 90 minutes; impairment from 1 minute of secondhand tobacco exposure was recovered within 30 minutes.
The effects of marijuana smoke were independent of THC concentration; i.e., when THC was removed, the impairment was still present. This research has not yet been conducted with human subjects, but the toxins and tar levels known to be present in marijuana smoke (see “What are marijuana’s effects on lung health?”) raise concerns about exposure among vulnerable populations, such as children and people with asthma.”