American Civil War, Baton Rouge Arsenal, Benito Juarez, Convention of London, Emperor Maximilian I, General Herman Sturm, General Philip Sheridan, Imperial France, Latin America, Louisiana, Mexican Bonds, Mexican Republic, Mexico, mining, Monroe Doctrine, Napoleon II, Pastry War, Russia, Second Mexican Empire, Seward, silver, Spain, UK
The history of Latin America is far more complex than most have been led to believe. The United States supported the Mexican Republic, and worked to oppose the European imposed dictator, Emperor Maximilian I. Russia supported the dictator-Emperor. “To extend the influence of Imperial France, Napoleon III instigated the intervention in Mexico by claiming that the military adventure was a foreign policy commitment to free trade. The establishment of a friendly monarchy in Mexico would ensure European access to Latin American markets; and French access to Mexican silver…”
Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico
The United States supported the indigenous president, below, and opposed the European Emperor above. Many people need to come up to speed on the complex history of Latin America. Europeans were in Latin America, and exploiting it, long before the United States even existed.
Benito Juárez, independence leader and President of the Mexican Republic, indigenous (Zapotec) from Oaxaca. “Entre los individuos, como entre las naciones, el respeto al derecho ajeno es la paz”, meaning “Among individuals, as among nations, respect for the rights of others is peace” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benito_Juárez
Napoleon III was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Excerpts from Wikipedia:
“The Second French Intervention in Mexico (Spanish: Segunda intervención francesa en México, 1861–67; known as Expédition du Mexique in France) was an invasion of Mexico, launched in late 1861, by the Second French Empire (1852–70). Initially supported by Britain and Spain, the French intervention in Mexico was a consequence of President Benito Juárez’s two-year moratorium, on 17 July 1861, of loan-interest payments to French, British and Spanish creditors.
To extend the influence of Imperial France, Napoleon III instigated the intervention in Mexico by claiming that the military adventure was a foreign policy commitment to free trade. The establishment of a friendly monarchy in Mexico would ensure European access to Latin American markets; and French access to Mexican silver. To realize his imperial ambitions without other European interference, Napoleon III entered into a coalition with Britain and Spain, while the U.S. was occupied with the American Civil War (1861–65), and unable to enforce the Monroe Doctrine.
On 31 October 1861, France, Britain, and Spain agreed to the Convention of London, a joint effort to extract repayments from Mexico. On 8 December, the Spanish fleet disembarked troops at the port of Veracruz, Veracruz, on the Gulf of Mexico. When the British and the Spanish discovered that France had unilaterally planned to seize Mexico, they withdrew from the military coalition agreed in London. The subsequent French invasion created the Second Mexican Empire (1861–67), a client state of the French Empire.
Besides the Continental empires involved, the Russian Empire also acknowledged the political legitimacy of the Maximilian’s Second Mexican Empire, when the Tsarist fleet saluted the imperial Mexican flag when sailing off the Pacific Ocean coastal state of Guerrero.…
Near the end of the American Civil War, representatives at the 1865 Hampton Roads Conference briefly discussed a proposal for a North-South reconciliation by a joint action against the French in Mexico. In 1865, through the selling of Mexican bonds by Mexican agents in the United States, the Juarez Administration raised between $16-million and $18-million dollars for the purchase of American war material. Between 1865 and 1868, General Herman Sturm acted as an agent to deliver guns and ammunition to the Mexican Republic led by Juarez. In 1866 General Philip Sheridan was in charge of transferring additional supplies and weapons to the Liberal army, including some 30,000 rifles directly from the Baton Rouge Arsenal in Louisiana.
By 1867, Seward shifted American policy from thinly veiled sympathy to the republican government of Juárez to open threat of war to induce a French withdrawal. Seward had invoked the Monroe Doctrine and later stated in 1868, “The Monroe Doctrine, which eight years ago was merely a theory, is now an irreversible fact.”” Read more and see photos-paintings here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_French_intervention_in_Mexico https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ (NB: The top quote is from this article excerpt.)
“The Pastry War (Spanish: Guerra de los pasteles, French: Guerre des Pâtisseries), also known as the First French intervention in Mexico or the First Franco-Mexican War (1838–1839), began in November 1838 with the naval blockade of some Mexican ports and the capture of the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa in Veracruz by French forces sent by King Louis-Philippe. It ended several months later in March 1839 with a British-brokered peace. The intervention followed many claims by French nationals of losses due to unrest in Mexico.
This incident was the first and lesser of Mexico’s two 19th-century wars with France, being followed by the French invasion of 1861–67 which supported the short reign of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico who was executed by firing squad at the end of that later conflict.…” Read more and see photos-paintings here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pastry_War https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
Images public domain via Wikipedia.
The original photo of Juarez says “Republican” leader, but since the so-called Republican Congress of the United States has tainted that word, we opted for calling him an independence leader.