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The Posse Comitatus Act, enacted in 1878 and now codified at 18 U.S.C. § 1385, is perhaps the most tangible expression of an American tradition, born in England and developed in the early years of our nation, that rebels against military involvement in civilian affairs. The Declaration of Independence listed among our grievances against Great Britain that the King had “kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the consent of our legislatures,” had “affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the civil power.” The Articles of Confederation addressed the threat of military intrusion into civilian affairs by demanding that the armed forces assembled during peacetime be no more numerous than absolutely necessary for the common defense, and by entrusting control to civil authorities within the states… The Bill of Rights limited the quartering of troops in private homes, U.S. Const. Amend. III, and noted that “a well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed,” U.S. Const. Amend. II. The Constitution, on the other hand, explicitly permitted the Congress to provide for calling out the militia to execute the laws, suppress insurrection, and repel invasion, U.S. Const. Art. I, § 8, cl.16…” “The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: A Sketch“, CRS, November 6, 2018

CRS, “The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: A Sketch“, Updated November 6, 2018 https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42669.pdf

Longer version: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42659.pdf