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We hope that if Mike Espy is elected US Senator, that he might lead in healthcare innovation, like his grandfather, Thomas J. Huddleston, did. The United States needs innovation in healthcare to improve quality, and access, all while cutting costs. This is what the Espys are famous for, along with funeral homes.

From the National Historic Landmark application:
Narrative Statement of Significance ‘

The Afro-American Sons And Daughters Hospital is significant at the statewide level under Criterion A in the areas of Health/Medicine and Black Ethnic Heritage because it was the first hospital built in Mississippi specifically to serve African Americans during the era of stringent racial segregation and it was one of the most important medical facilities in the state for African Americans during that period. It was operated as a hospital from 1928 until 1972.

The Afro-American Sons and Daughters Hospital opened its doors on December 27, 1928. It was operated under the auspices of the Afro-American Sons and Daughters, a fraternal organization which was created for the primary purpose of providing medical care to African Americans in Mississippi during an era when racial segregation barred blacks from access to most medical facilities in the state, and when a large proportion of blacks in Mississippi were living in conditions of rural isolation and poverty. The hospital was organized under the leadership of Thomas J. Huddleston, a prominent African American landowner and community leader. Eleven years after its founding, the origins of the hospital were summarized in the Mississippi Progrss Committee’s History of Negroes in Mississippi:

“It [the hospital] was a part of a fraternal and benevolent order, the Afro-American Sons and Daughters, and was born in the fertile brain of Thomas J. Huddleston, one of the largest and most successful Negro landowners and planters in Mississippi, a foremost layman of the Baptist Church, and one of the best organizers and men of affairs of his race in the South… The object of the Order was to combine all persons of sound bodily health, exemplary habits and good moral character, between the ages of three and sixty years of age into a fraternal order to provide for their relief; and to provide a hospital for the relief of the sick and disabled members. The organization grew rapidly, and in four years from its beginnings erected a hospital owned and operated by Negroes on 8th Street and Webster Avenue, Yazoo City, Mississippi“. 2

During its 43 years of operation, the Afro-American Sons and Daughters Hospital provided free hospitalization and medical care to thousands of black Mississippians. The hospital operated a Nurses Training School which trained nurses from the beginning of training to licensure.

The hospital was built by a black contractor, Austin Broomfield, at a cost of $32,147.

Many prominent African American doctors and nurses were associated with the hospital during its years of operation. Among the most prominent was Dr. Lloyd T. Miller, who served for many years as chief surgeon. According to a contemporary account,

“Dr. Miller is achieving astounding success as a surgeon. He has operated on over 30,000 people. We believe Dr. Miller has set a numerical record for Negro surgeons, and his record of losing only two percent of his cases no doubt will stand the acid test. Dr. Miller of Yazoo City, is our choice for the honor of America’s BUSIEST and BEST Negro surgeon”. 3

Another prominent physician was Dr. Robert E. Fullilove, who gave invaluable service to the hospital as the Assistant Surgeon to Dr. Miller. Dr. Cyril A. Walwyn was the last doctor/administrator to serve in the hospital until it closed in 1972.

Nurses who worked at the hospital also made significant contributions. Mrs. Leola Galloway served as Head Nurse for many years, both training the nursing students and assisting the doctors. Without her experience and knowledge of medicine and people, especially sick people, there would have been a much lesser degree of hospital care. 4 Eunice Nelson and Modesta Walker were also nurses who made invaluable contributions during their many years of service to the hospital.

The Afro-American Sons and Daughters Hospital stands as a testament to black social and economic solidarity and development in Mississippi during the era of racial segregation, and to the achievement of excellence in the midst of adversity in the areas of medicine, education, and community service.

Many prominent African American doctors and nurses were associated with the hospital during its years of operation. Among the most prominent was Dr. Lloyd T. Miller, who served for many years as chief surgeon. According to a contemporary account,

Dr. Miller is achieving astounding success as a surgeon. He has operated on over 30,000 people. We believe Dr. Miller has set a numerical record for Negro surgeons, and his record of losing only two percent of his cases no doubt will stand the acid test. Dr. Miller of Yazoo City, is our choice for the honor of America’s BUSIEST and BEST Negro surgeon. 3

Another prominent physician was Dr. Robert E. Fullilove, who gave invaluable service to the hospital as the Assistant Surgeon to Dr. Miller. Dr. Cyril A. Walwyn was the last doctor/administrator to serve in the hospital until it closed in 1972.

Nurses who worked at the hospital also made significant contributions. Mrs. Leola Galloway served as Head Nurse for many years, both training the nursing students and assisting the doctors. Without her experience and knowledge of medicine and people, especially sick people, there would have been a much lesser degree of hospital care. 4 Eunice Nelson and Modesta Walker were also nurses who made invaluable contributions during their many years of service to the hospital.

The Afro-American Sons and Daughters Hospital stands as a testament to black social and economic solidarity and development in Mississippi during the era of racial segregation, and to the achievement of excellence in the midst of adversity in the areas of medicine, education, and community service.

1 This text, edited by Richard J. Cawthon, is based upon a draft prepared by Dr. Patricia Murrain. 2 Mississippi Progress Committee, History of Negroes in Mississippi (1939).

Narrative Description

The Afro-American Sons and Daughters Hospital is a former hospital building located at the southeast cornier of 8th Street and Webster Avenue in Yazoo City, Mississippi. It was built in 1928 and enlarged in 1935. It operated as a hospital from 1928 until 1972. Located adjacent to the main building is a small house which served as a nurses’ residence.

The hospital is a one-story, brick-veneered building with a hipped roof. As originally constructed, the building had a U-shaped plan, occupying three sides of a center courtyard that opened northward toward 8th Street. The original building accommodated 35 beds, with two additional beds located in the Labor Room. In 1935 the building was enlarged by extending the lateral part of the building eastward and adding a new wing on the east side, resulting in an E-shaped plan. The expansion provided space for an additional 15 beds, resulting in a a total of 50 beds for patients. Following the enlargement, the hospital contained one operating room, one surgical room with an attached scrub-up area, one anesthesia room, a nurses room and a doctor’s room, a central sterilizing room, a labor room, a delivery room, an x-ray room, an isolation nursery with an adjoining ante-room, a regular nursery with an adjoining formula and work room, an electricity equipment room, a service porch, a nurses station, multiple utility rooms, a storage room, a staff dining room with an adjoining food preparation room, a food service room, an admitting room, a waiting room, an emergency and examination room, an emergency entrance, a doctor’s office, a laboratory, several multi-bed wards, several single-bed rooms, several bathrooms, and a prayer room. 1 The hospital underwent some minor remodeling in 1967 that changed the configuration of several rooms but did not otherwise change the plan of the building.

There are several entrances into the building. The main entrance is at the center of the rear block, facing northward into the courtyard. It is sheltered by a modest portico. There are secondary doorways opening onto the courtyard from each of the original wings. The entrance to the emergency room area is located on the north wall of the lateral part of the eastern addition, and another doorway opens into the corridor that runs along the west side of the added wing. At the rear of the building (on the south) is a service entrance into the kitchen area.

Windows throughout the building were apparently six-over-six lights in wooden double-hung sash, set singly and in clusters, but at the present time the window openings are covered with plywood. On the interior, the windows are trimmed with simple surrounds with backhands. Interior doors throughout the building are surmounted by transoms and trimmed with moldings to match the windows.

The building retains a high degree of structural integrity form the period of its use as a hospital. It is currently vacant and unused, but it has been well secured and remains in moderately good condition.

Located at the rear of the property, facing onto Webster Avenue, is a small house that served as a nurses’ residence. It has undergone substantial remodeling and is don-contributing in its present condition.
1 Information derived from plans prepared by Godfrey, Bassett and Pitts Architects, Jackson, Vicksburg and Yazoo City, 1967.

Bibliography

Afro-American Courier (newspaper). Yazoo City, MS., August, 1928.

Afro-American Courier (newspaper). Yazoo City, MS. , December, 1928.

Campbell, T., Jr. Interviewed by Harriet DeCell, Yazoo county scholar-in-residence. Oral history project, May 12, 1980. Subject: Afro-American Hospital.

Charter and Constitution of the Afro-American Sons and Daughters: As amended at Yazoo City, Mississippi, August 15, 1962. Yazoo City, MS.: The Grand Lodge, Afro-American Sons and Daughters, 1962.

DeCell, H., & Prichard, J. Yazoo: Its Legends and Legacies. Yazoo Delta Press, 1976.

Huddleston, T. J., Jr. Interviewed by Patricia Murrain, Yazoo City, MS., August 1987.

Lindsey, W. Interviewed by Barbara Alien, Yazoo County Scholar-In-Residence, Oral History Project, Yazoo City, MS, August 1980. Subject: Afro-American hospital

Little, C.E.H. Interviewed by Patricia Murrain, August 1987.

Loener, J.W. & Sallis, C. (eds.). Mississippi Conflict & Change. New York: Pentheon, 1974.

McMillen, N.C. Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

Mississippi Progress Committee. History of Negroes in Mississippi. First Edition. 1939.

Owens, H. Interviewed by Barbara Alien, Yazoo County scholar-in-residence. Oral history project, May 1,1980. Subject: Afro-American Hospital. Sewell, G. A., & Dwight, J.L. Mississippi Black History Makers (rev, ed.). Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1984.

Thpmas, J.C. Afro-American Sons and Daughters: 1849-1949: a 100 year history of the contributions of Afro-Americans to Yazoo County and the state of Mississippi. Yazoo City, MS: Thomas & Kirk, 1997.

Wharton, FX. The Negro in Mississippi: 1865-1890. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.
” Emphasis our own; original found here: https://npgallery.nps.gov/NRHP/GetAsset/33daa81a-6295-4ee1-9d49-e7068dc50fcb Photos from application: https://npgallery.nps.gov/NRHP/GetAsset/a641da37-3ae1-41ad-987f-5d51193446e1

Photo of what it looked like when it was still open.

Link: https://misspreservation.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/img_src-24-aspx.jpeg
Source: “Photo by Chip Bowman, MHT, 3-30-2007. Retrieved from MDAH Historic Resources Database July 18, 2012. See: https://misspreservation.com/2012/07/19/abandoned-mississippi-afro-american-sons-and-daughters-hospital/