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NASA has already engaged industry partners in gateway concept studies. Roscosmos and other space station partner agencies are preparing to do the same.“.

That’s really punishing Russia for taking Crimea and beating up, arresting and killing journalists; opposition leaders and protestors! Sanctions? What sanctions? It’s bad enough that private companies are using sanctions loopholes but even worse for the US government to do so. This is effectively the Executive (Trump) overriding the will of the legislative branch (US Congress). Notice that NASA is already working on this and Roscosmos is “preparing” – but gee, they won’t have to it seems for the US taxpayer will give it all to them with Trump’s help. Then they can give the technology which surely has military applications to North Korea and everyone will say, oh my, where did North Korea get their technology from? Since its creation, North Korea has been a client state of Russia, with the possible exception of the decade between the fall of the Soviet Union and the rise of Putin. The US, Norway and some European countries paid to help secure and clean-up Russia’s old nuclear waste, enabling Russia to use its money to build more nuclear submarines, a floating nuclear reactor (first invented by the US govt.), etc. Russia has benefitted from tech transfer before – Ford (1929) and the father of the Koch brothers spring to mind. There were many others. There was and is still Cummins engines where US Vice President Pence’s brother is VP. Russia and the US both got a lot of military related technology from Nazi scientists after WWII, too. [Update note: Pence’s brother recently retired from Cummins but would still be dependent upon them for retirement; probably is invested in them, and it’s still a major employer for their hometown – and campaign donor.]

This is well underway and Russia is being allowed to waltz right in while Russia is still “preparing”: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2017/11/10/nasas-first-flight-with-crew-will-mark-important-step-on-journey-to-mars/

Sept. 27, 2017
NASA, Roscosmos Sign Joint Statement on Researching, Exploring Deep Space
Building a strategic capability for advancing and sustaining human space exploration in the vicinity of the Moon will require the best from NASA, interested international partners, and U.S. industry. As NASA continues formulating the deep space gateway concept, the agency signed a joint statement with the Russian Space Agency, Roscosmos, on Wednesday, Sept. 27 at the 68th International Astronautical Congress in Adelaide, Australia.

This joint statement reflects the common vision for human exploration that NASA and Roscosmos share. Both agencies, as well as other International Space Station partners, see the gateway as a strategic component of human space exploration architecture that warrants additional study.

NASA has already engaged industry partners in gateway concept studies. Roscosmos and other space station partner agencies are preparing to do the same.

“While the deep space gateway is still in concept formulation, NASA is pleased to see growing international interest in moving into cislunar space as the next step for advancing human space exploration,” said Robert Lightfoot, NASA’s acting administrator at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “Statements such as this one signed with Roscosmos show the gateway concept as an enabler to the kind of exploration that is affordable and sustainable.”

NASA plans to expand human presence into the solar system starting in the vicinity of the Moon using its new deep space exploration transportation systems, the Space Launch System rocket and Orion spacecraft. This plan challenges our current capabilities in human spaceflight and will benefit from engagement by multiple countries and U.S. industry.

Studies of the gateway concept will provide technical information to inform future decisions about potential collaborations. These domestic and international studies are being used to shape the capabilities and partnering options for implementing the deep space gateway.

The space station partners are working to identify common exploration objectives and possible missions for the 2020s, including the gateway concept. A key element of their study is to ensure that future deep space exploration missions take full advantage of technology development and demonstration enabled by the International Space Station, as well as lessons learned from its assembly and operations.

During the same time period and in parallel, NASA has been engaging U.S. industry to evaluate habitation concepts for the gateway and for the deep space transport that would be needed for Mars exploration. NASA has competitively awarded a series of study and risk reduction contracts under the Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) Broad Agency Announcement to advance habitation concepts, technologies, and prototypes of the required capabilities needed for deep space missions. The most recent awards included six U.S. companies; Bigelow Aerospace, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Orbital ATK, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and Nanoracks. Five of the six firms were selected to develop full-sized ground-based engineering prototypes of habitation systems, expected to be complete in 2018. NASA has also solicited industry proposals for studies on concept development of a power and propulsion element, which would be the first piece of a gateway architecture.
Cheryl Warner
Headquarters, Washington
NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate
Last Updated: Sept. 27, 2017
Editor: Sarah Loff


The US did nuclear fuel testing from 2014 to 15 and is supposed to test a full size reactor prototype by the end of 2017: https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/news/news/releases/2014/ntrees.html

Click to access 20170002010.pdf

Russia says they are starting in 2018: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TEM_(nuclear_propulsion)
Problems of previous nuclear reactor(s) in space: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SNAP-10A

Image by Christina MacPherson of Nuclear News Net. See much more news here: https://nuclear-news.net

Parihar, V. K. et al. “Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction“. Sci. Rep. 6, 34774; doi: 10.1038/srep34774 (2016).
The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. … Cosmic radiation also disrupted synaptic integrity and increased neuroinflammation that persisted more than 6 months after exposure… Our data provide additional evidence that deep space travel poses a real and unique threat to the integrity of neural circuits in the brain…. Despite our long-standing knowledge that patients subjected to cranial radiotherapy for the control of brain malignancies develop severe and progressive cognitive deficits 8,9, the total doses and radiation types used in the clinic differ significantly from those encountered in space. Compelling evidence has now demonstrated the adverse effects of space-relevant fluences of charged particles on cognition7,10–15, and our studies, have linked functional behavioral decrements to the erosion of neuronal structure and synaptic integrity in specific regions of the brain7,16. Importantly, these changes were found to persist 6 weeks following acute exposure of rodents to charged particles, and showed little or no signs of recovery, regeneration or repair7. Here, we extend our studies …“. Parihar, V. K. et al. Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction. Sci. Rep. 6, 34774; doi: 10.1038/srep34774 (2016). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.https://www.nature.com/articles/srep34774