1939, Germany, Imperialism, Kaliningrad, Königsberg, Lithuania, Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, nuclear missiles, nuclear power, nuclear weapons, Poland, Putin, Russia, Russian aggression, Russian imperialism, USA, USSR
Russia occupied Kaliningrad after World War II and continues to do so. It is not attached to the rest of Russia, as can be seen on this and any other map. Historic Königsberg, the 762 year old city was renamed Kaliningrad by Russia on July 4, 1946. Russia is occupying Europe and then complains. Russia is the historic and current aggressor. It already has more land than any other country.
ANYONE WITH EYES TO SEE CAN SEE THAT KALININGRAD ISN’T PART OF RUSSIA!
“Russia Reportedly May Send More Iskander Missiles To Kaliningrad“, Oct. 13, 2017
Last year: “Russia deploys nuclear-capable missiles in Kaliningrad“, 9 October 2016 http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-37597075
While since 1945 there is a Russian exclave on the Baltic, next to Poland and Lithuania, it is not even attached to Russia and historically was German or Polish. Russia occupied the Kaliningrad enclave after World War II. Formerly Königsberg, this 762 year old city has only been Russian since 1945 and was renamed Kaliningrad on July 4, 1946. Russia needs to shut up and give the Kaliningrad exclave back to Poland or Lithuania, or to Germany: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaliningrad
Both Russia and the USSR have a long-standing track-record of aggression against its neighbors – gobbling them up.
See for instance Russia occupying, then gobbling up Poland-Lithuania.
Russia and Nazi Germany agreed to divide Poland between themselves in the Molotov Ribbentrop pact:
And, by the way, Russia didn’t give its part back. It was absorbed by the USSR and after the fall of the USSR became part of what is now Belarus. Part of Belarus is historic Poland and part of Poland is historic Germany. This has been called the strange name of terroritorial reparations at Germany’s expense.
The Final Settlement of World War II signed on September 12, 1990, which paved the way for German unification, has also thrown into question the legal status of the Kaliningrad Oblast, a region of the Russian Republic which was formerly the East Prussian territory of Königsberg… nowhere does it mention an explicit right of annexation. The Final Settlement does nothing to revise this nor does it put to rest the arguments of other potential claimants.” “THE STATUS OF THE KALININGRAD OBLAST UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW“, by Raymond A. Smith, LITHUANIAN QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, Volume 38, No.1 – Spring 1992 (Read the entire quote further below).
Russia’s Baltic Exclave of Kaliningrad isn’t attached to Russia itself and was historically Baltic Germanic: “The Russians never referred to ‘historic frontiers,’ … nor did they refer to ethnic principles, … in order to justify their absorption of the Königsberg area — The Russians never attempted historic and/or ethnic rationalisation, because they could not. The Russians annexed territory that had never been part of tsarist Russia…” (Sharp, 1977-78)
“The Kaliningrad region is a small, isolated section of Russia well west of and unconnected to the rest of the country“, as succinctly explains Vladimir Slivyak, co-chair of Ecodefense: https://safeenergy.org/2014/07/08/not-a-foreign-agent/
“History doesn’t start in 1945
Present-day Kaliningrad Oblast was previously part of the German province of East Prussia. While the German population either fled or was deported between 1945 and 1948, in 1946, Kaliningrad, or Königsberg as it was known previously, was incorporated into the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic of the USSR.
The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the region sandwiched between Poland and newly independent Lithuania, and Kaliningrad is now a small outpost of Russia surrounded by the European Union. Historically Lutheran and Catholic, Kaliningrad is still full of tangible reminders of this Prussian past, and has the largest numbers of registered communities of these denominations in the country. By the number of registered communities, Kaliningrad has the largest presence of Lutherans (46 parishes) and Catholics (25 parishes) of any region in Russia.” Excerpted from “Historical rights (and wrongs): who owns the past in Kaliningrad?” VICKY ARNOLD 1 April 2015 CC-BY-NC: https://www.opendemocracy.net/od-russia/vicky-arnold/historical-rights-and-wrongs-who-owns-past-in-kaliningrad
“Königsberg was founded in 1255 on the site of the ancient Old Prussian settlement Twangste by the Teutonic Knights during the Northern Crusades, and was named in honour of King Ottokar II of Bohemia. A Baltic port city, it successively became the capital of their monastic state, the Duchy of Prussia (1525-1701) and East Prussia. Königsberg remained the coronation city of the Prussian monarchy, though the capital was moved to Berlin in 1701. It was the easternmost large city in Germany until it was captured by the Soviet Union on 9 April 1945, near the end of World War II.
A university city, home of the Albertina University (founded in 1544), Königsberg developed into an important German intellectual and cultural centre, being the residence of Simon Dach, Immanuel Kant, Käthe Kollwitz, E. T. A. Hoffmann, David Hilbert, Agnes Miegel, Hannah Arendt, Michael Wieck and others.
Between the thirteenth and the twentieth centuries, the inhabitants spoke predominantly German, but the multicultural city also had a profound influence on the Lithuanian and Polish cultures. The city was a publishing centre of Lutheran literature, including the first Polish translation of the New Testament, printed in the city in 1551, the first book in Lithuanian language and the first Lutheran catechism, both printed in Königsberg in 1547.
During World War II, Königsberg was heavily damaged by Allied bombing in 1944 and during its siege in 1945. The city was captured and occupied by the Soviet Union. Its German population was expelled, and the city was repopulated with Russians and others from the Soviet Union. Briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg (Кёнигсберг), it was renamed “Kaliningrad” in 1946 in honour of Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin.
It is now the capital of Russia’s Kaliningrad Oblast, an exclave bordered in the north by Lithuania and in the south by Poland. The status of Kaliningrad Oblast under international law did note that Königsberg (Kaliningrad) was never formally transferred to the Soviet Union after 1945; the territory was merely placed under Soviet administration. Germany currently places no claims, however it also has not renounced any claims to the possibility of territory reunification.
Königsberg was preceded by a Sambian, or Old Prussian, fort known as Twangste (Tuwangste, Tvankste), meaning Oak Forest, as well as several Old Prussian settlements, including the fishing village and port Lipnick, and the farming villages Sakkeim and Trakkeim.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Königsberg
“The Russians never referred to “historic frontiers,” as in the case of most Poland and Bessarabia, nor did they refer to ethnic principles, as in the case of Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia and to a lesser extent Galicia, in order to justify their absorption of the Königsberg area — The Russians never attempted historic and/or ethnic rationalisation, because they could not. The Russians annexed territory that had never been part of tsarist Russia… Since it was an act of pure annexation in the Great Power tradition, Stalin’s stated reasons were consonant with this. He argued upon the basis of security and revenge against the recent aggressor Germany, and general commercial advantage“. Tony Sharp, “The Russian Annexation of the Königsberg Area 1941-45” Survey, Autumn 1977-78, p. 156 , passim 162, as cited in Smith, 1992.
“The Final Settlement of World War II signed on September 12, 1990, which paved the way for German unification, has also thrown into question the legal status of the Kaliningrad Oblast, a region of the Russian Republic which was formerly the East Prussian territory of Königsberg./ The status of this territory is questionable because the pro-visions of the Final Settlement may have left the oblast “lost in transit:” formally surrendered by Germany but never formally received by the Soviet Union. Article One of the Final Settlement demands that “the united Germany has no territorial claims whatsoever against other states and shall not assert any in the future.”2 That is, it compels Germany to renounce its claims to any formerly German lands outside the FRG, the GDR and Berlin without specifically transferring title to these lands to other parties.3 In this regard, the Final Settlement seems not to have taken the form envisioned in 1945 by the Allied Powers when they concluded the Potsdam Agreement. It is Article Six of this document which forms the basis of Soviet control of Kaliningrad, placing it under the administration of the Soviet Union “pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement.” Although the Potsdam Agreement does speak of “the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union of the City of Königsberg and the area adjacent to it,” nowhere does it mention an explicit right of annexation.4 The Final Settlement does nothing to revise this nor does it put to rest the arguments of other potential claimants.” “THE STATUS OF THE KALININGRAD OBLAST UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW“, by Raymond A. Smith, LITHUANIAN QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, Volume 38, No.1 – Spring 1992
“Russian fighter intercepts U.S. bomber over Baltic Sea
Posted:Tue, 06 Jun 2017 19:31:35 -0400
MOSCOW (Reuters) – Russia scrambled a fighter jet on Tuesday to intercept a nuclear-capable U.S. B-52 strategic bomber it said was flying over the Baltic Sea near its border, in an incident that had echoes of the Cold War.” http://feeds.reuters.com/~r/Reuters/worldNews/~3/Pj5jxWjqoAk/us-russia-usa-bomber-idUSKBN18X166
EMPHASIS OUR OWN THROUGHOUT.
Top map is public domain as a US government work.
Poland Maps public domain via https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Territorial_evolution_of_Poland