“The march itself was composed of fewer than 30,000 men, but the king in part feared a civil war since the squadristi had already taken control of the Po plain and most of the country, while Fascism was no longer seen as a threat to the establishment.
Mussolini was asked to form his cabinet on 29 October 1922, while some 25,000 Blackshirts were parading in Rome. Mussolini thus legally reached power, in accordance with the Statuto Albertino, the Italian Constitution.
The March on Rome was not the seizure of power which Fascism later celebrated but rather the precipitating force behind a transfer of power within the framework of the constitution.
This transition was made possible by the surrender of public authorities in the face of fascist intimidation.
Many business and financial leaders believed it would be possible to manipulate Mussolini, whose early speeches and policies emphasized free market and laissez faire economics.”
Carsten, Francis Ludwig (1982). “The Rise of Fascism”“. University of California Press.p.76, as referenced in: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_on_Rome
MUSSOLINI RULED FOR SEVERAL YEARS BEFORE DECLARING A DICTATORSHIP. HE WAS ORIGINALLY A COMMUNIST. LIKE STALIN HE RAN AN AUTHORITARIAN STATE. Similarly, the continuity between Czarist Russia, Soviet Russia, and Putin’s Russia is the authoritarian State.
“Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (Italian pronunciation: [beˈniːto mussoˈliːni]; 29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF), ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943. He ruled constitutionally until 1925, when he dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a legal dictatorship. Known as Il Duce (The Leader), Mussolini was the founder of Italian Fascism.
In 1912 Mussolini was the leading member of the National Directorate of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). Prior to 1914, he was a keen supporter of the Socialist International, starting the series of meetings in Switzerlandthat organised the communist revolutions and insurrections that swept through Europe from 1917. Mussolini was expelled from the PSI for withdrawing his support for the party’s stance on neutrality in World War I. He served in the Royal Italian Army during the war until he was wounded and discharged in 1917. Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering on nationalism instead of socialism, and later founded the fascist movement. Following the March on Rome in October 1922 he became the youngest Prime Minister in Italian history until the appointment of Matteo Renzi in February 2014.
After removing all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes, Mussolini and his followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship. Within five years he had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means, aspiring to create a totalitarian state.
Mussolini remained in power until he was deposed by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1943. A few months later, he became the leader of the Italian Social Republic, a German client regime in northern Italy; he held this post until his death in 1945.
1. ^ See Benito and Mussolini in Luciano Canepari, Dizionario di pronuncia italiana online
2. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6.
3. ^ “BBC – History – Historic Figures: Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)”. bbc.co.uk.
4. ^ “Mussolini founds the Fascist party – Mar 23, 1919”. HISTORY.com.
5. ^ Anthony James Gregor (1979). Young Mussolini and the Intellectual Origins of Fascism. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520037991.
6. ^ Masao Nishikawa (2010). Socialists and International Actions for Peace 1914-1923. Frank & Timme GmbH. ISBN 978-3-86596-066-5.
7. ^ Haugen, pp. 9, 71
8. ^ Luisa Quartermaine (2000). Mussolini’s Last Republic: Propaganda and Politics in the Italian Social Republic (R.S.I.) 1943-45. Intellect Books. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-902454-08-5.