authoritarianism, CGT, Dictator, Dictatorship, fascism, Fascist Spain, France, Franco, French Code, French Labour Code, French Prime Minister, French State of Emergency, Human Rights, International Brigades, labor law, Labour law, Manuel Valls, moorish Spain, Morocco, Nazi Germany, Philippe Martinez, Prime Minister Valls, Rome, Spain, Spanish Civil War, Spanish Inquisition, Spanish Republic, state of emergency, UN, USA, workers rights
“This year marks the 85th anniversary of the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic and the 80th anniversary of the Fascist rising of 18 July which overthrew the democratically elected republican government and sparked off a civil war which subsequently led to a 40-year period of cruel dictatorship… More than one hundred thousand Spaniards were murdered between 1939 and 1975 and the remains of more than 35 000 people have yet to be uncovered in ditches and fields throughout the length and breadth of Spain, … Torture and extra-judicial killings and other mass violations of human rights were common practice during the long period of dictatorship. Half a million Spaniards were forced into exile, … hundreds of thousands were imprisoned and detained in concentration and work camps, the last of which closed in 1962.” (Yrs modified from “Condemnation of the Franco regime on the 70th anniversary of Franco’s coup d’état” below). It also marks the 70th anniversary of UN condemnation of Franco’s regime, which it called fascist, while noting its close ties to Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.
“I would say that the main thing that shaped my character besides my parents was the fact that I grew up in fascist Spain. It’s difficult for people of the younger generation to realize what that means, even for the Spanish younger generation. You had actually to resist the whole environment,…” [Harry Kreisler, “Conversations with History: video interview of Manuel Castells” (9 May 2001), U Cal Berkley (UCTV), 2001, 1min26sec as quoted at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Castells ]
From: “Human Rights Committee, General Comment 29, States of Emergency (article 4), U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.11 (2001)“: “4. A fundamental requirement for any measures derogating from the Covenant, as set forth in article 4, paragraph 1, is that such measures are limited to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situation. This requirement relates to the duration, geographical coverage and material scope of the state of emergency and any measures of derogation resorted to because of the emergency.” See: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2016/01/21/un-human-rights-experts-alarmed-by-frances-excessive-and-disproportionate-restrictions-on-fundamental-freedoms-and-abuses-islamic-terror-attack-used-as-excuse-to-target-environmentalists/ https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2015/11/30/france-abuses-state-of-emergency-puts-citizens-under-preventive-house-arrest-because-they-might-protest-during-climate-conference/
Any students of Roman history left? “Roman dictators were allocated absolute power during times of emergency. Their power was originally neither arbitrary nor unaccountable, being subject to law and requiring retrospective justification. There were no such dictatorships after the beginning of the 2nd century BCE, and later dictators such as Sulla and the Roman Emperors exercised power much more personally and arbitrarily.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dictatorship
Prime Minister of France Manuel Valls, born and raised in Franco’s Spain, has pushed for an ever extending state of emergency, which has been criticized by the UN and Human Rights groups due to both abuses and to its dangerously authoritarian overreach in both time and space. Valls recently shoved a law through parliament amending the legal code regarding work, without vote. Yes, that’s right, there is some 1958 constitutional loophole allowing for this. We haven’t had time to see if it is related to the still ongoing State of Emergency in France, which is based on a law from the same period during the Algerian War. https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Article_49_de_la_Constitution_de_la_Cinquième_République_française
If it looks like a dictator, acts like a dictator… PM Manuel Valls proposing that the French State of Emergency be extended in November. Now it’s been extended three times and will last until July 2016.
“L’Etat C’est Moi“?
Whereas Valls actually looks more related to Franco than some people do to their own parents, the actions are more important. One can’t help but wonder, if they are kin, however. Same nose, ears, lips, eyes, eyebrows…
General Franco in Argentina
Franco in his youth
The Spanish Inquisition ran from 1 November 1478 to 15 July 1834;
Franco was in office from 1 April 1939 – 20 November 1975.
Manuel Valls’ family apparently had no problems with Franco’s Spain. His father left to study art in Paris ca 1948 or 49. Valls was born in Spain in 1962 and lived there into his teens. He seems to have left AFTER Franco’s death. Isn’t that peculiar? Why would he be there and leave after Franco died. He couldn’t deal with democracy in Spain or what? Were they so deeply in bed with Franco that they had to leave? For a summary and links re Valls family see references: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2016/05/25/workers-vote-to-strike-at-all-19-nuclear-power-stations-in-france/
Interestingly, the head of the CGT union opposing Valls’ new law is Philippe Martinez. In contrast to Valls, Martinez was born in France, as was his father. Martinez’ father returned to Spain as part of the international brigades fighting against the rise of fascism there. History repeating itself? The International Brigades “came from a claimed “53 nations” to fight against the Spanish Falangist forces led by General Francisco Franco, who was assisted by German and Italian forces” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Brigades This very complex period is discussed in George Orwell’s “Homage to Catalonia”. Info about the British International Brigades is here: http://www.international-brigades.org.uk/content/why-spain
During the Asturian Miners Strike Franco used Moroccans to fight Spanish Miners: “In the armed action taken against the uprising, some 3,000 miners were killed in the fighting, with another 30,000–40,000 taken prisoner,and thousands more sacked from their jobs… Franco believed that he was justified in the brutal use of troops against Spanish civilians. Historian Paul Preston: “Unmoved by the fact that the central symbol of rightist values was the reconquest of Spain from the Moors, Franco did not hesitate to ship Moorish mercenaries to fight in Asturias, the only part of Spain where the crescent had never flown. He saw no contradiction about using the Moors, because he regarded left-wing workers with the same racialist contempt he possessed towards the tribesmen of the Rif. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asturian_miners%27_strike_of_1934 The French Labour Minister in Manuel Valls’ government, Myriam El-Khomri, was born in Rabat Morocco to a French mother and Moroccan father. Thus, it is the El Khomri law which was run through a constitutional loophole to break the rights of French workers. El-Khomri was also close to Mayor of Paris, Anne Hildalgo, a Spanish born aristocrat and dual national who has demonstrated a keen allergy to free speech.
“The General Assembly recalls that, in May and June 1946, the Security Council conducted an investigation of the possible further action to be taken by the United Nations. The Sub-Committee of the Security Council charged with the investigation found unanimously:
“(a) In origin, nature, structure and general conduct, the Franco regime is a fascist regime patterned on, and established largely as a result of aid received from, Hitler’s Nazi Germany and Mussolini’s Fascist Italy.”
“(b) During the long struggle of the United Nations against Hitler and Mussolini, Franco, despite continued Allied protests, gave very substantial aid to the enemy Powers. First, for example, from 1941 to 1945, the Blue Infantry Division, the Spanish Legion of Volunteers and the Salvador Air Squadron fought against Soviet Russia on the Eastern front. Second, in the summer of 1940, Spain seized Tangier in breach of international statute, and as a result of Spain maintaining a large army in Spanish Morocco large numbers of Allied troops were immobilized in North Africa.”
“(c) Incontrovertible documentary evidence establishes that Franco was a guilty party with Hitler and Mussolini in the conspiracy to wage war against those countries which eventually in the course of the world war became banded together as the United Nations. It was part of the conspiracy that Franco’s full belligerency should be postponed until a time to be mutually agreed upon.”
The General Assembly, Convinced that the Franco Fascist Government of Spain, which was imposed by force upon the Spanish people with the aid of the Axis Powers and which gave material assistance to the Axis Powers in the war, does not represent the Spanish people, and by its continued control of Spain is making impossible the participation of the Spanish people with the peoples of the United Nations in international affairs; Recommends that the Franco Government of Spain be debarred from membership in international agencies established by or brought into relationship with the United Nations, and from participation in conferences or other activities which may be arranged by the United Nations or by these agencies, until a new and acceptable government is formed in Spain.
The General Assembly, Further, desiring to secure the participation of all peace-loving peoples, including the people of Spain, in the community of nations, Recommends that if, within a reasonable time, there is not established a government which derives its authority from the consent of the governed, committed to respect freedom of speech, religion and assembly and to the prompt holding of an election in which the Spanish people, free from force and intimidation and regardless of party, may express their will, the Security Council consider the adequate measures to be taken in order to remedy the situation; Recommends that all Members of the United Nations immediately recall from Madrid their Ambassadors and Ministers plenipotentiary accredited there. The General Assembly further recommends that the States Members of the Organization report to the Secretary-General and to the next session of the Assembly what action they have taken in accordance with this recommendation. Fifty-ninth plenary meeting, 12 December 1946.” https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/United_Nations_General_Assembly_Resolution_39
“Subject: Condemnation of the Franco regime on the 70th anniversary of Franco’s coup d’état
This year marks the 75th anniversary of the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic and the 70th anniversary of the Fascist rising of 18 July which overthrew the democratically elected republican government and sparked off a civil war which subsequently led to a 40-year period of cruel dictatorship. The adverse effects on the Spanish population of the dictatorial regime headed by General Franco that was established by force with the support and involvement of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy were to include a delay of several decades in Spain’s involvement in the European integration project that led to today’s EU.
The remarkable transition to democracy between 1978 and 1982 was based in part on the values and ideals of the Second Spanish Republic. To date, no moral reparation has been made to the victims of the coup and the period of dictatorship. More than one hundred thousand Spaniards were murdered between 1939 and 1975 and the remains of more than 35 000 people have yet to be uncovered in ditches and fields throughout the length and breadth of Spain, including those of the great poet Federico García Lorca. Torture and extra-judicial killings and other mass violations of human rights were common practice during the long period of dictatorship. Half a million Spaniards were forced into exile, including Juan Ramón Jiménez, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature, and hundreds of thousands were imprisoned and detained in concentration and work camps, the last of which closed in 1962.
The Council of Europe recently adopted by a large majority a motion in favour of an ‘international condemnation of the Franco regime’. This represented the first international condemnation of the regime. In this connection, the references which the Takkula report on the proposal for a decision of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing for the period 2007-2013 the programme ‘Citizens for Europe’ to promote active European citizenship makes to the victims of dictatorships in Europe, among which the Franco regime in Spain undoubtedly occupies a regrettably prominent position, are in our view extremely significant.
The Members who signed this question wish to ensure that no Member State ever again undergoes a dictatorial regime such as that under which Spain suffered for four decades. We believe that the spirit of the European Union, based on the rule of law and the principles of freedom, democracy and respect for human right and fundamental reasons would take on even greater meaning if a veil of silence was not drawn over the atrocities of Europe’s dictatorial regimes.
Does the Council intend to follow the international community’s example and propose that the Franco regime be condemned at European level, and also to declare 18 July 2006 an official day of condemnation of the Franco regime?” http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+OQ+O-2006-0058+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN (List of names at original, emphasis added)
“The Francisco Franco National Foundation is a private, non-profit entity ‘without political or party affiliation’ which was founded in Spain in 1976, a year after the dictator’s death. According to its objectives, the role of the foundation is to ‘promote the memory and achievements of Francisco Franco’.
This objective, despite involving the exaltation of the dictator, has been considered an important task by the various parties that have governed Spain since the end of the dictatorship, given that the State has repeatedly funded the foundation. This funding reached the considerable sum of EUR 147 000 between 2001 and 2004.
This foundation explicitly condones fascism, celebrating the tragic events of the civil war and the repression during the dictatorship as victories for the homeland. It also vilifies any ideology which does not share its fascist ideals and encourages hate and violence, insulting anyone who constitutes a ‘threat’ to the ‘unity of Spain’.
Given the impunity of this state-financed fascist foundation, 16 000 Spaniards have decided to petition the President of the European Parliament, calling for condemnation and public rejection of the foundation, and to urge the Spanish Government to ban it. The European Parliament and the Council of Europe condemned the Franco regime in 2006, but despite this explicit condemnation, the foundation has continued its activities financed by various Spanish Governments. This type of activity condoning fascist ideology regularly receives public funding, not only in Spain but also in many other Member States, heightening popular concern at the provision of funding to fascist organisations which work together at European level to disseminate their ideology.
1. Is the Commission aware of these organisations and the activities organised by them, which receive public funding from the various Member States and carry out activities outside their national borders?
2. Is the Commission aware of the transnational cooperation amongst these organisations, which seek to extend fascist ideology throughout Europe? Does the Commission intend to propose legislation on this matter and prevent the propagation of fascist ideology in Europe? Does the Commission consider that European organisations which condone fascism comply with the spirit of European law?” http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+WQ+E-2012-010099+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN
There were Americans who fought fascism in Spain
American veterans of the Spanish Civil War, Photo by Whomever, Flickr via Wikimedia, CC-BY: http://www.flickr.com/photos/harrietq/137228110/
And, then there were those Americans who went from fighting fascism to cozying up to Franco. General Franco with former US General-President Eisenhower, 1959. Can a democratic country be friends with a dictatorhip? What’s the saying about becoming like the friends one keeps?
Eisenhower “was a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe. He was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front. In 1951, he became the first Supreme Commander of NATO. He was US President from January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_D._Eisenhower Why fight fascist dictatorships only to later cozy up with them?
We recommend against travel to France. They can take your passport and keep you locked in your hotel room, unless this part has been changed, and they could have made a mistake because of lack of checks. Better to stay at home and well-worth boycotting. Go to beautiful nuclear free Austria or Ireland instead. Dublin’s beautiful, but western Ireland is further away from Sellafield.
Info on Philippe Martinez (In French) https://web.archive.org/web/20160526155347/http://tempsreel.nouvelobs.com/societe/social/20150211.OBS2232/moustache-et-lutte-des-classes-10-choses-a-savoir-sur-philippe-martinez-le-patron-de-la-cgt.html