100 mSv, BEIR report, Camorra, cancer, childhood cancer, Dow Chemical, dumping of radioactive waste in Italy, dumping radioactive waste, Ed Calabrese, Eisenhower, environmental crimes, exporting nuclear waste, exporting radioactive waste, extermination, Extermination protocol, Exxon Mobil, Germany, Giovanno Pagano, grant monies, Hiroshima, Hitler, Hormesis, hormesis ideology, importing nuclear waste, importing radioactive waste, infertility, International Dose-Response Society, International Hormesis Society, Italy, land of fires, low dose radiation, mafia, Mussolini, National Academy of Sciences, NRC comment period, nuclear extermination, nuclear regulatory commission, nuclear waste, nuclear waste crisis, nuclear waste problem, radiation and cancer, radiation induced cancer, radioactive waste, radioactive waste problem, RERF, Research grants, Schiavone, toxic waste, Triangle of Death, U. Mass Amherst, US Air Force, US DOE, US Navy, USA
Why, and by what right, has a “researcher”, Giovanni Pagano, from Italy’s “Triangle of Death”, put in a comment to the US NRC that the US should raise their public radiation level over 100 fold to 100 mSv PER YEAR, which would make America into an even more deadly zone than Italy’s “Triangle of Death”? (Comment period was extended to November 19th. Organize; comment if you don’t wish to die of cancer, or see your loved ones do so: http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail;D=NRC-2015-0057. It will quickly spread elsewhere if approved.
Until September 8th you can comment directly on Pagano and his colleague Calabrese’s comments. This is different from the main comment itself.
Triangle of Death
Pagano must know very well that Sorensen (see e-mail) works for Pagano’s colleague Dr. Calabrese, and yet seems to feign ignorance. Sorensen is “Managing Director of the International Dose-Response Society” and Calabrese is the “Director“. The “International Dose-Response Society“, run from U. Mass Amherst, was formerly called the “International Hormesis Society,” (more commonly known as radiation is good for you). Seeking to prove that radiation is good for you is methodologically flawed and non-scientific, especially as research has for so long shown the mutagenic and lethal dangers of radiation. It is not scientific to set out with the goal of proving something to be true. And, this is literally a life and death matter. Furthermore, it appears that they have missed the entire concept and meaning of immunity and immune response. If you stick your hand on a stove or in fire, yes, there is immune response, microscopic, which can show as macroscopic, in the form of redness and inflammation. But, do you keep your hand on the stove or in fire, saying that it is good for you? This summarizes their “reasoning”. They may be foolish enough to do so, and end up with a serious burn. Will they burn their house down then too, with themselves in it, saying that fire is good for you? In a metaphorical sense the Italian Camorra have done so by dumping radioactive, and toxic waste, in the countryside around Naples, where Pagano works. Why aren’t Pagano, Sorenson, and Calabrese over in Fukushima reaping the radiation benefits?
They call it low dose, but 100mSv per year is not a low dose by any stretch of the imagination. It pretty much guarantees cancer for everyone. It even far exceeds the dangerous 20 mSv per year for radiological workers allowed under the very pro-radiation ICRP. The Calabrese-Sorensen “low-dose” website cites a Chester Southam U. of Idaho Forestry paper from 1941 on brown rot fungi in red cedar, which says that red cedar extract which is lethal at high doses to the fungi, is stimulatory at low doses. Firstly this has nothing to do with radiation. Secondly, fungi-molds are well-known to be highly resistant to radiation. A more recent study (1998) shows that this brown rot can be slowed down on apples by applying radiation, but only because of the bad impact of radiation on the apple, and not on the brown rot. As much as 3,000 Sv of gamma irradiation has little impact on the brown rot fungus itself. However, 30 Sv of gamma radiation leads to death within minutes for humans. [A]
Do Calabrese, Pagano et. al. fancy themselves to be fungi or mold? They may be, but humans are not. And, as rotten as they are, they surely must not be fungi or mold, or they wouldn’t be able to write comments to the US NRC or write articles. All are past retirement. Have they peered over the precipice of death into hell and decided to take all with them?
Crowley et. al. (2015), of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS)/RERF Hiroshima, issued a pointed counter-critique to Calabrese’s 2014 critique of the NAS-BEIR Linear No Threshold (LNT) model. Crowley et. al. state: “We write to correct several mischaracterizations and inaccuracies in their commentary.” At the end, regarding Calabrese’s paper,they point out: “Scientists can do grave damage to their credibility, and to the credibility of the broader scientific enterprise, when they use science to advocate for personal policy choices.“
Italian “researcher” Pagano says: “I fully agree with the proposed rule change by the U.S. Nuclear Regulation Commission which would change the linear no-threshold model of radiation protection to the radiation hormesis model…I can witness that hormesis is a fact, may it be subscribed by Dr. Sorensen or not“. (See full comment further down).
This is a strange and irrelevant statement, by Pagano. Why should he say, or the US NRC care, or anyone else for that matter, if Pagano concurs with Sorensen or not? Why this disclaimer? The collaboration between Pagano and Calabrese goes back to at least a 2002 conference, strangely funded by the US Air Force, of this “society”. Is that part of their black budget?
Pagano apparently is the same who was at Istituto Nazionale Tumori “Fondazione Pascale”, Centro di Ricerca Oncologica (CROM) Italy, Mercogliano from Jan 1972 to Dec 2013, and who has more recently been Visiting Scientist at the University of Naples Federico II , Environmental Hygiene, Italy, Napoli, Jul 2014–May 2015. He also did a stint from Jan 1992–Dec 1996 at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. He’s probably at least 68 years old. We know from his email that he was still recently at Fondazione Pascale, so unless there were two there, that’s him. “Environmental Hygiene”, what a sick joke given the mafia induced garbage and “triangle of death” health disaster for the Naples region brought on by the dumping of radioactive and toxic waste in quarries and on farmland. “Hygiene”, my eye!
Alfred J Sorensen seems to be a 72 year old retiree, whose 2012 income as “Department Assistant” at U. Mass was $5,560. If he really has a Ph.D., then it was either not from Amherst or it was not digitized. He was affiliated with U. Mass Amherst, with an M.S., in 1980, and wrote about the impacts of insecticides on bugs, in 1975. [B]
Why does the Airforce want to prove that radiation is good for you? The Air Force Funded Conference was “Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationships in Biology Toxicology and Medicine”, contracted to Edward J. Calabrese, Ph.D. F49620-02-1-0149 and Pagano’s paper for the Conference was entitled “Hormetic vs Inhibitory Effects in Sea Urchin Bioassays Giovanni Pagano, Instituto Nazionale Tumori, Naples, Italy (See documents at page bottom).
Oh, wait, it’s not just the Air Force which has sponsored these conferences, but also that nuclear pork barrel entity, the US DOE and the Navy: “Calabrese, Edward J. “International Conference on Non-Linear Dose Response Relationships to be held September 19-21, 2001” US Dept of Energy US Dept of Energy/DE-FG02-01ER63139 M001 Other/Grant Direct $18,500/ Indirect $0/ Total $18,500 July 01, 2001-June 30, 2002 100-1645/5-28869
Calabrese, Edward J. CO-PI: Kostecki, Paul T. Environmental Health Sciences “International Conference on Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationships in Biology, Toxicology and Medicine” Air Force Office of Scientific Research US Dept of Defense/F49620-02-1-0149 Other/Grant Direct $18,713/ Indirect $6,287/ Total $25,000 April 01, 2002-December 31, 2002 101-1405/5-28182
Calabrese, Edward J. CO-PI: Kostecki, Paul T. Environmental Health Sciences “Chemical/Radiation Hormesis Database and Evaluation of Hormetic Mechanisms” Air Force Office of Scientific Research US Dept of Defense/F49620-01-1-0164 P00001 Research/Contract Direct $98,783/ Indirect $52,849/ Total $151,632 January 01, 2002 – December 31, 2002 102-0809/5-28149
Kostecki, Paul T. CO-PI: Calabrese, Edward J. Environmental Health Sciences “Human Health Risk Assessment for the Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS) China Lake, California” Navy US Dept of Defense/N47408-02-C-7307 P00002 Other/Contract Direct $57,002/ Indirect $30,535/ Total $87,537 March 22, 2002-December 31, 2002 102-0997/5-28193” 
“When the money keeps rolling in you don’t ask how”: http://youtu.be/JDqnyqI-tDg
Eisenhower warned in his Farewell address on the military industrial complex about the power of public, and private, money in universities: “The prospect of domination of the nation’s scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present and is gravely to be regarded.“
It is noteworthy that Italy already tried to send its “low level” nuclear waste to the US in 2008, and has sent high level nuclear waste (HEU) to the US under the guise of “non-proliferation”, even though the US couldn’t keep an elderly nun out of its “high security” Y-12 HEU facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, proving this policy, which also costs taxpayers over a billion a year, is a con-game which is making America into the world’s nuclear dump, already. Furthermore, 94% of Italians voted against nuclear power for Italy, adding to Pagano’s hypocrisy. (See all of this in detail further down in this post). Germany is phasing out nuclear energy, as most know, and lacks a place for its decommissioned reactors, and the nuclear waste they are still producing. There will be more and more need for hospital disposal, as more get thyroid disease and cancer, and radiation remains a treatment, making a vicious circle of death.
According to former Camorra Mafioso Schiavone, Germany radioactive waste-nuclear sludge was dumped in the Naples-Triangle of death area, and even in the area of the A-4 highway, in the north, along the base of the Italian Alps. And, Germany, as routine readers know, has burned low level radioactive waste in Tennessee, and is currently trying to send high level waste from its failed Pebble Nuclear reactors to the US, even though the US has no place for it either
What interest then does this Giovanni Pagano have in tampering with US policy? To better dump the Italian remnant nuclear waste and medical waste upon America? Possibly. It just so happens that Italy is currently looking for a nuclear waste dump, just like everyone else.
“I warned them that this toxic waste would kill entire generations,’… ‘They told me not to worry, and just drink bottled water. I said, ‘what good it is to drink bottled water when the whole population is dead?”  “…they’d say to me ‘You’re an old man of honour. We do it for the money.’ I’d say ‘You’re not men,… It’s not about being an old man of honour. It’s about people’s survival, unborn children who won’t be born because of you.”  (Repentant Mobster Carmine Schiavone, 1943 to Feb. 2015) Note that he died of a heart attack a little over a year after his 1997 testimony discussing German radioactive sludge dumped by the mafia in Italy was declassified, and giving a series of interviews and reports.
Gare! Scots beware that the Camorra, who poisoned Italy, are also active in Scotland, in Aberdeen, according to a recent EU co-funded study. The American mafia, Cosa Nostra (our thing), are also alive and well in America. Camorra are also directly present, including in Massachusetts, says Wikipedia.
And, so the plot thickens. In fact, it has so thickened, that it is fairly popping out of this post! In the last post, we learned that a Sandia US Nuclear Lab employee, Mark Miller, who is one of the three who put in the request to increase the general population radiation exposure level by over 100 times to 100 mSv per year (the US EPA puts the limit at 0.25 mSv; the NRC at 1 mSv) had proposed returning people to highly contaminated areas around Fukushima and Chernobyl.
In the US NRC comment section, an Italian “researcher”-Pagano- gives his support to this 100 mSv per year proposal, which amounts to the effective extermination of America, and which would make it eventually uninhabitable. Not an Italian-American, (though an apparent Italian American, Calabrese, is behind it), but an Italian living in Naples, home to the Camorra which dumped toxins, including German radioactive waste, and created the “Triangle of Death” on formerly fertile Italian farmland. It is now called the land of fires. In Roman times it was called “Felix Campania”, happy, fertile, countryside, but no more. Self-combusting toxic waste is found there . The fires are apparently to reduce waste size and to prevent explosion of the self-combusting waste, a bit reminiscent of the WIPP transuranic waste dump, which is still having problems… Remember this self-combusting waste at WIPP and the photo from May 2014?
Is the US NRC trying to increase public radiation exposure rates by over 100 times, to better make it a foreign nuclear waste dump? What’s in it for an Italian “researcher” until recently, and perhaps still, at the Italian National Cancer Institute in Naples, Camorra Mafia Capital-Triangle of Death Region? Is his having a name with ties to the Camorra a mere coincidence? Is it but a spurious correlation?
As we discussed in the last post, the 100 mSv per year criminally proposed by the US NRC and criminally supported by this Italian “researcher” would lead to all women having cancer within an “average” lifetime, half of which would result in life-shortening death, on average, by 65 years of age. The estimated cancer rate would actually exceed 100%, suggesting multiple cancers. Some few might dodge the bullet, while others get multiple cancers. Well over half of men would also get cancer, and over half die. This excludes pre-existing radiation in the environment, it excludes medical exposure, it excludes accumulation in the environment, it excludes any other causes of cancer. In short, in reality, it would guarantee cancer for everyone, and probably much more quickly. The risk is much greater for the unborn and children.
Why is Italian “researcher”, Giovanni Pagano, supporting an over 100 times increase in radiation for Americans? He’s in Naples with its long-standing mafia run garbage problems and “triangle of death” from toxic waste, including radioactive waste. And where the Amato-Pagano Camorra Clan remains prominent. He has been associated with the Italian National Cancer Institute, ‘G. Pascale’ Foundation, I-80131 Naples, Italy; gbpagano@ tin.it We traced him by his email address. Why is there a 62 page document dated 2014 about a 3 year program to fight corruption at this Institute? http://www.istitutotumori.na. it/IstitutoPascale/ PubblicazioneFtp/2014/ Allegati/i_69906.pdf Perhaps they wish to dispose of hospital or research waste more cheaply? According to Alfredo De Girolamo, cited in “Espresso”, one cubic meter of radioactive hazardous waste, for instance arising from research, can cost from 4,000 to 50,000 euros to dispose, while a ton of municipal waste is in the 100 to 200 euros range.  Not only can they save their Institute money, but if they pretend to pay the higher amount they could pocket the difference. (Of course, Pagano appears to have left around this time, but presumably because of retirement and not because of corruption issues. So, if he’s gone, and not returned, it is probably on good terms.)
They certainly are good at causing cancer over there in Giovanni Pagano’s neighborhood: “Over a twenty-year period, it was alleged, about ten million tonnes of industrial waste had been illegally dumped, with cancers caused by pollution increasing by 40-47%.“ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camorra (Also discusses Camorra in the US.)
Highly toxic waste “was for years illegally and profitably dumped, primarily by the Casalesi clan…. ‘I also know that trucks came from Germany carrying nuclear waste.’… He showed Italian justice officials the location of many of the dumpsites because, as he put it in 1997, the people in those areas are at risk of dying of cancer within 20 years.’ …nothing has been done. … cancer researchers have found mounting indicators that Schiavone might have been telling the truth…. numerous officials at all levels must have known about Schiavone’s warnings since the mid-1990s — and ignored them…. Antonio Marfella from the Italian Cancer Research Institute in Naples offers other sober findings: Tumors have increased by 47 percent among men in the province of Naples within the past two decades. The region of Campania now has the highest infertility rate in Italy and also leads in cases of severe autism…” Schiavone further alleged that former PM Berlusconi’s brother was involved in the import of nuclear waste. (Emphasis our own) Read the complete article: http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/anger-rises-in-italy-over-toxic-waste-dumps-from-the-mafia-a-943630.html (January 16, 2014) (Perhaps if the English speaking world had mainstream journalism as excellent as Der Spiegel, they would be shutting down their nuclear power stations like Germany plans to.) Schiavone’s testimony from the 1990s was made public in late 2013. He did numerous interviews afterwards. He was dead within a little over a year. Note that Pagano has been long associated with the same Institute as Marfella.
The New York Times pointed out: “By burying the waste in its backyard near Naples and the surrounding region of Campania, where the Camorra was born, the mob ensured a measure of protection, and silence. Bosses often exert a powerful influence over the local economy and politicians, especially in small towns…” 
Antonio Marfella, who works at the same Institute as Giovanni Pagano did for years, allegedly stated that “If we save ourselves, it is because others will die in our place“, regarding a belief that the Camorra is now using the port of Naples to send toxic waste elsewhere (to Africa and China), because there is “growing discontent“. http://www.peacelink.it/ecologia/a/24334.html Yeah, everyone, and especially young children, dying of cancer sort of does that to most people, especially since they have been told why! If Marfella is a good guy he needs to speak out against Pagano and the 100 mSv per yr.
What’s more, “the Camorra’s Amato-Pagano clan, which was believed to have emerged victorious in a bloody turf war in the early 1990s with the Di Lauro crime family.” The Amato-Pagano clan was “the most powerful clan in the city“, as late as 2009, (and may still be). Pagano is also an important surname in the history of the Camorra subgroup Clan dei Casalesi which was allegedly involved in the waste trafficking, and of which Schiavone was member: https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clan_dei_Casalesi
Of course the US NRC is supposed to listen to someone from Naples, mafia garbage capital of the world, who at the best isn’t taking care of his own backyard, and at the worst is involved in poisoning it, and who coincidentally, or not, carries a Camorra surname (ironically meaning “heathen”) rather than the Harvard chaired (Richard Monson) US gov funded BEIR report!
The US taxpayer funded BEIR (2006) report says “the assumption that any stimulatory hormetic effects from low doses of ionizing radiation will have a significant health benefit to humans that exceeds potential detrimental effects from radiation exposure at the same dose is unwarranted.“ p. 315 In other words radiation is bad for you. BEIR is best known for its logical, common sense, Linear No-Threshold (LNT) Risk Model. Increasing exposure to radiation is increasing risk. Damage is stochastic (random). BEIR was chaired by Harvard Epidemiologist Richard Monson. A Los Alamos Lab expert compared radiation to gunshots but on the cellular level. The more you shoot at something, the more likely you are to hit it and the less likely adequate repair will occur. It’s like non-stop Russian Roulette. Anyone going out and non-stop randomly shooting into a crowd would be considered criminals and even mobsters can’t get by with that non-stop. But, for the nuclear industry, it’s a way of life. Nuclear energy emits deadly radionuclides into the environment legally throughout the entire nuclear fuel chain, even when there is no accident. Nuclear reactors leak radiation legally into the air and water. The US NRC tells them to report concentration, i.e. dilution, rather than actual amounts. This is to be commented upon under “Reactor Effluents”, as well, by Sept. 1st: http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail;D=NRC-2014-0044
Furthermore, according to the BEIR (2006) report, hormesis connotes a “value judgment” and is not even a proper term: “The term hormesis is not commonly used in the epidemiologic literature. Rather, epidemiologists discuss associations between exposure and disease. A positive association is one in which the rate of disease is higher among a group exposed to some substance or condition than among those not exposed, and a negative (or inverse) association is one in which the rate of disease is lower among the exposed group.”  “Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2.” Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006,
Thus, Pagano’s using the sleazy trick of accusing his opponents of adhering to an ideology, when he himself, and his ilk, are the ones who are adhering to an ideology. “Hormesis” is a “value judgement”, i.e. ideological. However, the 100 mSv is an ideology which is effectively an extermination protocol, unless of course you are a mold or fungi.
Is now the time to discuss that Italy, like Germany, had concentration camps, including extermination camps? Maybe it should have been mentioned with the photo of Hitler and Mussolini?
Pagano Comment to the US NRC:
ID: NRC-2015-0057-0041 Tracking Number: 1jz-8k4i-2gao http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=NRC-2015-0057-0041
In a counter-critique to a Calabrese-O’Connor 2014 paper criticizing BEIR’s Linear No Threshold (LNT) model, Crowley, et. al. (2015), affiliated with the National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan state “We write to correct several mischaracterizations and inaccuracies in their commentary.“ At the end they state regarding Calabrese’s paper: “Scientists can do grave damage to their credibility, and to the credibility of the broader scientific enterprise, when they use science to advocate for personal policy choices.“
Interestingly, they further note: “Calabrese and O’Connor scold the legislative, regulatory and scientific communities for ignoring what the authors refer to as ‘‘reality checks” (p. 471) that have challenged the LNT model for chemical carcinogens. They never explain how this discussion relates, if at all, to regulations for ionizing radiation”  This is particularly damning given that the mafia dumped toxic and radioactive waste in the Italian countryside.
Who is this Alfred Sorensen who solicited this comment? He’s Calabrese’s associate, as we’ve seen. And, Pagano knows very well what Calabrese’s position is. He’s been a colleague for over a decade pushing the deadly ideology of hormesis.
Edward J. Calabrese, of U. Mass, Amherst, appears the “godfather” behind the “International Dose-Response Society” of which he is Director, and Alfred Sorensen, the Managing Director , within the Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences at U. Mass, Amherst. With the grant monies Calabrese pulls in, he would have no need for the real mafia, and has clearly created his own fiefdom at U. Mass Amherst, which is supposed to be a public land-grant university. In the 70s they used to speak of “publish or perish” in academia, but with non-stop budget cuts, the reality has long been get grant monies or perish. And, he who has the grant monies wields the same sort of power, within academia, as a mafia boss. Potential power accrues to the donor, as well. Hence, it is fair to speak of contemporary academia as being “mafia-like”. And, in the end, Mafia Boss, Schiavone, was more honest.
A web search of “giovanni pagano edward calabrese” shows that they have been collaborators for well over a decade.
Calabrese appears active in undermining safe drinking water standards, along with trying to destroy radiation safety standards. One of the more fishy aspects of Calabrese is that he spent most of his student and his professional career within the same university. His undergrad and Ph.D. are from U. Mass Amherst, where he has been since 1976! This is not supposed to be allowed at US universities for it is considered academic incest. Ken Buesseler, of WHOI is another example of academic incest and pandering to the nuclear lobby.
Since 2011, Calabrese claims to be on an advisory board for a grad “training program” “focused on hormetic mechanisms” at the Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena, Germany. Notice the year! Think of Annette Schavan, if you don’t think it’s possible. Since she was stripped of her doctorate for alleged plagiarism in 2013, the Germans are supposedly trying to get tougher on standards. This Italian-German “thing” from Hitler and Mussolini to Italian mafia dumping German nuclear and other toxic sludge and destroying Italian farmland and poisoning people and this Calabrese-Germany thing never cease to perplex.
According to his bio on the U. Mass web site, recent funding for Calabrese has included over a million dollars (of US taxpayer monies) from the “Air Force Office of Scientific Research” (2013-2018) and $150,000 per year from ExxonMobil as PI (Principal Investigator) for “Hormesis Research”, 2007-2013. He has been a long-standing recipient of Air Force (taxpayer) money, and this wasn’t his first round of funding from ExxonMobile. The Air Force doesn’t do its own research anymore? He’s been funded by Dow Chemical and other nasty producing nasties, too long to list for now. He has also received $188,000 of taxpayer money from the US NRC for “Development of an ionizing radiation hormesis database”, Sept. 1997 – Sept. 1999. The NRC has also given him taxpayer monies to study “Biological effects of low level exposures: 1996-1998, 1999-2001 ($60,000 or $20,000/year). Frighteningly, he appears active in undermining safe drinking water standards, as well as radiation standards He should be retired but the money appears too good. “And, the money keeps rolling in…” Stronzo, Sicko. https://www.umass.edu/sphhs/person/faculty/edward-j-calabrese https://www.umass.edu/sphhs/person/staff/alfred-j-sorensen Funding has also come from the DOE. Calabrese is a bane to the world and all of creation. At 69 he is past retirement and has well-exceeded the average age of death which he wants to condemn Americans to. He needs to be put out to pasture at Fukushima. Even WIPP would do. He became a professor at U. Mass the same year that Abba sang “Money, money, money” and appears to have taken the song to heart! “It’s a rich man’s world“!
Edward Calabrese is clearly faithful to his Calabrian pedigree in outlook. In his 1997 testimony, Schiavone stated: “Even in Calabria it was the same: no one there would refuse the money. What could it matter, to them, if people died or not died? The essential thing was the business.” Calabria is home to the notorious, and hard to spell, ‘Ndrangheta mafia: “The ‘Ndrangheta, a criminal organization from Calabria (Italy) has been involved in radioactive waste dumping since the 1980s. Ships with toxic and radioactive waste were sunk off the Italian coast. In addition, vessels were allegedly sent to Somalia and other developing countries with toxic waste, including radioactive waste cargoes, which were either sunk with the ship or buried on land. The introduction of more rigorous environmental legislation in the 1980s made illegal waste dumping a lucrative business for organized crime groups in Italy.:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toxic_waste_dumping_by_the_%27Ndrangheta A judge who was investigating alleged offshore dumping of radioactive waste by the Camorra was killed in a highway accident this March (2015). There was, of course, Frank Calabrese of the Chicago Outfit, which we found in passing: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Calabrese,_Sr Ed J. Calabrese spent a couple of years teaching in Illinois. However, Italy dumped so many of its peasants upon America, around a century ago, that Calabrese’s are a dime a dozen in America. Now Italy wants to dump their radioactive waste on America.
Interesting that Pagano and Calabrese collaborated on: “Toxicity vs. hormesis in evaluating health effects: applications to bioassays using marine organisms. ”
Giovanni Pagano, Marco Guida and Edward J. Calabrese, CIESM 2007. Marine sciences and public health – some major issues. Ciesm Workshop Monograph n°31 [F. Briand, ed.], 128 p., CIESM Publisher, Monaco.
Italy voted at 94% against nuclear energy. By what right does Pagano try to impose upon the US what Italians themselves do not want? Will the German Ambassador to the Vatican, who had her Ph.D. revoked for plagiarism – Annette Schavan, and who spear-headed the plan to dump German nuclear waste on America sign on saying that she believes in hormesis and that radiation is good for Americans? Why won’t the anti-nuclear Pope Francis send her home? Perhaps she causes less mischief there than at home?
As we noted in our previous post, the 100 mSv per year exposure rate, according to the US government funded BEIR report, would pretty much guarantee cancer for women over an average life time, above and beyond the high levels of cancer which already occur. Almost half would die with their longevity reduced, on average, by 15 years, to 65 years old. Over 60% of men would get cancer from this exposure and over half would die. This is for this exposure only. It excludes any other exposures. It ignores the high levels of radiation allowed in US food (15 x higher than in Japanese food). It ignores that some of this 100 mSv will accumulate in the environment.
Italians aren’t dumb, or in la-la land, like so many in the English and French speaking world. They even made a great, catchy, anti-nuclear song for Greenpeace Italy! http://youtu.be/Ef89qsO0mEE
What interest then does this Giovanni Pagano have in tampering with US policy? To better dump the Italian remnant nuclear waste and medical waste upon America? Probably. It just so happens that Italy is currently looking for a nuclear waste dump, just like everyone else. Nonetheless, they have already been dumping on the US in the name of non-proliferation.
Wouldn’t it even be bad business for the mafia to make widespread dumping of foreign waste legal in the US? Or would they just charge everyone high prices and then dump in US landfills for almost free? That would be profitable wouldn’t it? And, run guns or drugs the other direction? It could also be profitable for a researcher or save money for an institute or hospital, such as the one which Pagano has worked for.
The US NRC, and other wiseguys, who are trying to kill off Americans, had better think about what happens to murderers when people get wise to what’s happening. Hitler and Mussolini both came to bad ends. See what happened to Mussolini in the end.
This is not a threat, it’s a warning of the facts. While it will be too late, when people start losing their children, dropping like flies, and ultimately there is no one to care for them, because everyone else is sick or dead, they are going to be mad and have nothing left to lose. When this happens, they will seek out the surviving culprits with a vengeance that will be much worse than that given Mussolini.
Furthermore, their money will do them no good in the afterlife, however, they die: “the pomp of power and all that beauty, all that wealth e’ver gave, awaits alike, the inevitable hour, the paths of glory lead but to the grave.” (Gray’s Elegy).
“On 11—12 June 2011, Italian voters passed a referendum to cancel plans for new reactors. Over 94% of the electorate voted in favor of the construction ban, with 55% of the eligible voters participating, making the vote binding.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power_in_Italy
Italy Highly Enriched Uranium and Plutonium sent to America, as it did its unwanted peasants before…
“Italy Highly Enriched Uranium and Plutonium Removals Fact Sheet Mar 24, 2014
Italy has been a global leader in nuclear nonproliferation, working with the United States since 1997 to eliminate more than 100 kilograms of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium.” [THEY MEAN REMOVING IT FROM ITALY. IT CAN’T BE ELIMINATED!]
“At the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit, the United States and Italy announced the successful removal of all eligible fresh HEU and plutonium from Italy. These shipments were completed via a joint effort between the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and Italy’s Società Gestione Impianti Nucleari (SOGIN). This is the thirteenth shipment of material from Italy to the United States under this program.
At the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit, Italy and the United States pledged to work together to remove this material prior to the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit. The material was located at three SOGIN facilities in Italy (EUREX Plant – Saluggia, IPU and OPEC Plants – Casaccia, and ITREC Plant – Trisaia). More than 17 kilograms of HEU and plutonium were removed, including UK and U.S.-origin material stemming from research and development activities in Italy. Prior to removal, the material was securely stored under International Atomic Energy (IAEA) safeguards. In order to complete this project, GTRI and SOGIN needed to overcome significant technical challenges including:
Development of new gloveboxes for plutonium packaging;
The development of a new process to convert HEU from a solution to an oxide;
Coordination of uranium shipments from the three separate locations;
Development of novel packaging configurations for the consolidation of plutonium materials within Italy; and Training and certification of personnel for specialized packaging operations.
Despite the significant technical challenges, the team was able to successfully complete the operation on schedule. Other significant contributors included Italy’s nuclear regulator (ISPRA), which ensured the material was processed and packaged to allow for safe transport; Italy’s Ministries of Defense and Interior, which ensured the security of the shipment while in transport in Italy; and the UK’s International Nuclear Services, which provided for the secure transport of the material from Italy to the United States.
This material will be stored at secure facilities in the United States until it is disposed of or downblended to LEU and utilized for civilian purposes. The United States and Italy plan to continue to work together to eliminate additional stocks of special nuclear material to make sure they never fall into the hands of terrorists, and are prepared to help other countries do the same.” http://www.nnsa.energy. gov/mediaroom/factsheets/italyremovals
“Nuclear power in Italy is a controversial topic. Italy started to produce nuclear energy in the early 1960s, but all plants were closed by 1990 following the Italian nuclear power referendum.
An attempt to change the decision was made in 2008 by the government (see also nuclear power debate), which called the nuclear power phase-out a “terrible mistake, the cost of which totalled over €50 billion”. Minister of Economic Development Claudio Scajola proposed to build as many as 10 new reactors, with the goal of increasing the nuclear share of Italy’s electricity supply to about 25% by 2030.
However, following the 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents, the Italian government put a one-year moratorium on plans to revive nuclear power. On 11—12 June 2011, Italian voters passed a referendum to cancel plans for new reactors. Over 94% of the electorate voted in favor of the construction ban, with 55% of the eligible voters participating, making the vote binding.”
Nuclear power plants in Italy are currently being decommissioned by Sogin, a company under control of the Italian Ministry of Economy and Finance. The company is responsible for the handling of nuclear waste and the dismantling and decontamination of decommissioned power plants. Sogin also manages nuclear waste from other applications, such as medical devices and scientific centers.
There are plans for the construction of a unique surface storage site for all the Italian nuclear waste, of which about 70% comes from old nuclear power plants. These highly radioactive materials are currently being reprocessed to reduce the total volume.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power_in_Italy
From ca. 2008:
“Should the U.S. be a dump for foreign nuclear waste?
EnergySolutions, the largest commercial nuclear waste dump in the U.S., is asking the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for permission to import 20,000 tons of low‐level nuclear waste from defunct nuclear reactors in Italy.
The waste would be shipped through ports in South Carolina and Louisiana, incinerated in Tennessee, and the incinerator ash and a portion of non‐incinerated waste would be sent to Utah for disposal.
EnergySolutions’ proposal is the largest of its kind, and the first time a company has specifically asked to dispose large quantities of foreign generated nuclear materials in the U.S. Moreover, the plan would set a precedent for the U.S. to become the world’s nuclear waste dump.
Congressmen Bart Gordon (D‐TN), Jim Matheson (D‐UT), and Ed Whitfield (R‐KY) have introduced bipartisan legislation—HR 5632—to ban the importation of low‐level radioactive waste into the United States.
HR 5632 is necessary to prevent the U.S. from being opened up to foreign nuclear waste disposal and to preserve our country’s ability to handle our own low‐level nuclear waste disposal needs.
Dumping foreign nuclear waste in the U.S. is not “business as usual.” Despite EnergySolutions’ claims that its request is simply “business as usual,” the Italian waste import would be almost 10 times greater than all previous foreign nuclear waste imports for disposal granted by the NRC combined.i
The tip of the iceberg. No country in the world has a disposal solution for all of its low‐level nuclear waste ii and EnergySolutions has made clear it plans to aggressively pursue foreign waste contracts as an important revenue stream for its shareholders.iii Foreign nuclear waste imports need to be banned so that we do not create an incentive for foreign countries to use the U.S. as their nuclear waste dumping ground.
A danger to public health and safety. Dumping large quantities of foreign nuclear waste in the U.S. will only constrain further our domestic disposal capacityiv and result in the need for expanded or new nuclear waste dumpsites. This presents a clear danger to public health, safety, and the environment.
Bad for domestic nuclear waste disposal. Neither the Congress nor the NRC ever intended that U.S. nuclear waste sites be used for the commercial importation of foreign nuclear waste.v Importations were only to be granted if they served an “important policy goal.” EnergySolutions’ import serves only its shareholders and represents a major change in federal nuclear waste policy.
HR 5632, a ban on foreign nuclear waste disposal in the U.S., is necessary to protect our low‐level nuclear waste disposal resources and ensure we do not become the world’s nuclear waste dump.
**Already, the Governors of Utah and Wyoming, a regional oversight committee called the Northwest Interstate Compact, and thousands of citizens have spoken out against EnergySolutions’ proposal. Please contact your Congressperson today and ask him/her to do the same by supporting HR 5632.**
Importing nuclear waste is in EnergySolutions’ best interests, but not America’s Bart Gordon and Jim Matheson Salt Lake Tribune, 04/05/2008
Sixteen years ago, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was warned that if it allowed nuclear waste to be imported into the United States, this country could turn into the world’s nuclear dumping ground. That warning went unheeded, and now, if the Congress doesn’t act, it could prove true.
In 1992, the Environmental Coalition on Nuclear Powers told the NRC that its proposed rule to license imports of low‐ level radioactive waste into the United States would allow “an essentially unrestricted flow . . . of radioactive wastes generated abroad into this country for ‘disposal,’ thereby turning our nation into an unlimited dumping ground for radioactive wastes produced worldwide.”
The NRC chose not to tighten its rule or to ban the importation of waste. Instead, it assured the public that no one would ever try to dump foreign low‐level waste here. And for more than 10 years, that was almost true. Small shipments were allowed in and sometimes disposed of in U.S. sites, but the licenses were infrequent.
But today, it is happening. EnergySolutions, the owner of a disposal site in Clive, Utah, has applied for a license to import 20,000 tons of low‐level radioactive waste, or LLRW, from Italy’s decommissioned nuclear reactors for processing in Tennessee and ultimate disposal in Utah. Italy, like many other countries, has no place to go with this radioactive waste. In fact, many European nuclear plants are slated to be decommissioned in the coming years. This is just the tip of the iceberg.
It isn’t surprising that EnergySolutions sees a business opportunity, and it is difficult to imagine any country in the world that wouldn’t be delighted to send its radioactive waste to the United States and be rid of it forever. There is a worldwide shortage of disposal space, and the company has publicly stated that it is looking for more decommissioning and disposal business around the world. In the prospectus issued when it went public last fall, EnergySolutions promoted the disposal site in Clive as one of its “competitive strengths.”
We don’t fault EnergySolutions for being creative and aggressive in its business plan. But when Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1980, it wasn’t trying to solve the nuclear waste problems of the world; it wanted to make sure the United States has a place to dispose of its own nuclear waste.
Nothing has changed that goal. The NRC, however, seems to want to go in another direction. It seems to think that if there is a site willing to take the waste, we can’t stop it. That is why we introduced our legislation to ban imports of LLRW into the United States unless the president determines that it is necessary to meet an important national or international policy goal.
EnergySolutions says it has enough room to take all U.S. waste for the next 19 years. But that projection was based on unusually low waste shipments and did not include any foreign waste. And, according to the Government Accountability Office, the U.S. doesn’t even know how much LLRW it has. If more nuclear plants are licensed, the equation will also change.
Low‐level radioactive waste may not sound dangerous, but all nuclear waste disposal sites must be monitored for hundreds of years to protect the public’s health. We have our hands full right here at home. We don’t need to take on that responsibility for anyone else. * JIM MATHESON, D‐Utah, and BART GORDON, D‐Tenn., are members of the House Energy and Commerce Committee.
i There have been a total of 24 applications to import low‐level radioactive waste filed with the NRC, of which 13 have been granted. Some are for amounts as small as a cubic meter or a few dozen kilograms. ii Government Accountability Office, “Low‐level Radioactive Waste Management: Approaches Used by Foreign Countries May Provide Useful Lessons for Managing U.S. Radioactive Waste,” GAO‐07‐221, March 2007, p. 24. iii Prospectus of EnergySolutions, SEC Registration No. 333‐141645, Nov. 17, 2007, pp. 4‐5. iv Disposal space for U.S. low‐level waste is limited. EnergySolutions is the only disposal option for 36 states, with 96% of commercial low‐level nuclear waste being dumped in Utah. Agreeing to dispose of the world’s nuclear waste will only compound this problem. v Letter from the U.S. Representative Bart Gordon to Dale Klein, Chairman, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Feb. 12, 2008. Prepared by HEAL Utah, 4/14/08” Read original here: https://www.nirs.org/radwaste/llw/italianwastefactsheetheal.pdf
http://www.nirs.org/radwaste/llw/llwhome.htm (Emphasis our own)
Hopefully we have gotten the kinks out of the endnotes and the references match. If not, the reference may be numbered wrong, but should be there and the numbering corrected sometime, if possible. We added A, B, to avoid renumbering the notes. The post itself may be edited for clarity time allowing. However, it need to go out. The topic is urgent. The video is very highly recommended. Our apologizes for any errors found. We lack “associates” such as Sorensen to do our bidding.
Notes, References, Photo Credits
A: “Investigation of the radiation effects on Brown Rot disease of Golden Delicious apples, inoculated with the fungus Monilinia fructigena.” Marcaki P1.Mycopathologia. 1998;142(1):33-6. “The effects of 0, 1.5 and 3 KGy gamma-irradiation on Brown Rot disease affecting Golden Delicious apples are investigated. The apples were artificially inoculated with Monilinia fructigena fungus before and after irradiation. Results show clearly that radiation induces a delay in fungus development, even when it is not directly affected. The effect of radiation on the apples’ substrate seems to be considerable, being the main factor affecting fungal growth. Radiation doses of 1.5 and 3 KGy do not seem to produce strong differences in the fungal growth. Irradiation, however, is very effective, producing important changes of practical interest for apples infected before or after irradiation.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16284856
Note that for external, low-LET, radiation, Gy is equal to Sv. Therefore, 3kGy would be 3,000 Sv and 3,000,000 mSv.
B: “Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Substances—A Major Campus Environmental Health & Safety Concern” Donald A. Robinson M.S. and Alfred J. Sorensen M.S. a Division of Environmental Health & Safety, University Health Services , University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, 01003, USA b University Health Services, University of Massachusetts , USA Journal of American College Health Association Volume 29, Issue 2, 1980, pages 74- 7 Published online: 07 Apr 2011 DOI: 10.1080/01644300.1980.10392962
“Effectiveness of Carbaryl and Thuricide 16-B on a Population of Larval Lambdina athasaria pellucidaria” Alfred J. Sorensen, Pedro Barbosa DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/68.4.561 561-562 1 August 1975 Entomological Society of America
“Abstract A field experiment was conducted at Cape Cod, Mass., to determine the efficacy of carbaryl aerially applied at the rate of 1 qt AI/acre and of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Thuricide 16-B®) at the rate of 1 and 2 qt AI/acre on Lambdina athasaria pellucidaria (Grote and Robinson). Results of a single aerial application of all insecticides indicate that Thuricide 16-B at 2 qt/acre was most effective compared to either the 1 qt/acre applications of the Thuricide or carbaryl in lowering the population levels of the L. athasaria pellucidaria. Carbaryl was least effective; Thuricide 16B at 1 qt/acre was intermediate in effectiveness.”
1: They were both at this Calabrese led, AirForce (taxpayer funed) Conference in 2002: http://www.dtic. mil/get-tr-doc/pdf?AD=ADA407994 Photos at bottom of this blog post. DOE, etc, funding Calabrese sources listed: http://www.umass. edu/research/system/files/FY2002-award-ou-detail.PDF (
4: “I warned them that this toxic waste would kill entire generations,” Schiavone told Mediaset. “They told me not to worry, and just drink bottled water. I said, ‘what good it is to drink bottled water when the whole population is dead?” cited in “Eco-Thugs, Italy’s Triangle of Death: Naples Residents Blame Child Cancer Rates on Mob Disposal of Toxic Chemicals“, by Barbie Latza Nadeau, 11.21.2013, The Daily Beast .com
5: Cited in “Italy – Toxic Secret – 15 min 49 sec [19 May 2014]” http://youtu.be/Dm2KmBVpAMo
6: “In the United Kingdom, all three Italian organised crime organisations run operations: the Camorra stronghold is Aberdeen, the third most populous city in Scotland,.. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+WQ+E-2013-013353+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN
7: “Italy – Toxic Secret – 15 min 49 sec [19 May 2014]” http://youtu.be/Dm2KmBVpAMo
8: “VELENI L’ecomafia? Si batte cambiando la legge sulla tracciabilità dei rifiuti Buchi normativi, budget insufficienti e assenza di coordinamento tra gli enti preposti rendono di fatto impossibile un controllo efficace sulla filiera dello smaltimento. Ecco i trucchi usati dalla criminalità” DI PETER D’ANGELO 27 luglio 2015 http://espresso.repubblica. it/attualita/2015/07/27/news/l-ecomafia-si-batte-cambiando-la-legge-sulla-tracciabilita-dei-rifiuti-1.222314
11: The BEIR Report:
12: “Comments on Estimating Risks of Low Radiation Doses—A Critical Review of the BEIR VII Report and Its Use of the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) Hypothesis by Edward J. Calabrese and Michael K. O’Connor Author(s): Kevin D. Crowley, Harry M. Cullings, Reid D. Landes, Roy E. Shore, and Robert L. Ullrich National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001; and b Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 5-2 Hijiyama Park, Minami-ku, Hiroshima City, Japan Source: Radiation Research, 183(4):476-481. Published By: Radiation Research Society DOI“: http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR4029.1 URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1667/RR4029.1
Schiavone testimony declassified document: http://leg13.camera.it/_bicamerali/rifiuti/resoconti/Documento_unificato.pdf
Document in text form, as opposed to picture. Thus, it can be cut and pasted into a translator or other: http://www.italiaincrisi.it/2013/11/03/ecco-il-documento-top-secret-delle-rivelazioni-di-schiavone-testo-completo/
Related documents: http://leg13.camera.it/_bicamerali/rifiuti/
See also: http://www.ambientequotidiano.it/2013/11/04/schiavone-rifiuti-tossici-deposizione-ecomafie-1997/
“The prospect of domination of the nation’s scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present and is gravely to be regarded.”
Walt Kozumbo, see above, and a laundry list of others, see below, are tied in with Calabrese’s 5 page document below. By 2014 Kozumbo was retired but part of the Low Dose advisory committee.
“Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose–response framework”
Edward J. Calabrese a,⁎, Kenneth A. Bachmann b, A. John Bailer c, P. Michael Bolger d, Jonathan Borak e, Lu Cai f, Nina Cedergreen g, M. George Cherian h, Chuang C. Chiueh i, Thomas W. Clarkson j, Ralph R. Cook k, David M. Diamond l, David J. Doolittle m, Michael A. Dorato n, Stephen O. Duke o, Ludwig Feinendegen p, Donald E. Gardner q, Ronald W. Hart r, Kenneth L. Hastings d, A. Wallace Hayes s, George R. Hoffmann t, John A. Ives u, Zbigniew Jaworowski v, Thomas E. Johnson w, Wayne B. Jonas u, Norbert E. Kaminski x, John G. Keller y, James E. Klaunig z, Thomas B. Knudsen aa, Walter J. Kozumbo ab, Teresa Lettieri ac, Shu-Zheng Liu ad, Andre Maisseu ae, Kenneth I. Maynard af, Edward J. Masoro ag, Roger O. McClellan ah, Harihara M. Mehendale ai, Carmel Mothersill aj, David B. Newlin ak, Herbert N. Nigg al, Frederick W. Oehme am, Robert F. Phalen an, Martin A. Philbert ao, Suresh I.S. Rattan ap, Jim E. Riviere aq, Joseph Rodricks ar, Robert M. Sapolsky as, Bobby R. Scott au, Colin Seymour aj, David A. Sinclair at, Joan Smith-Sonneborn av, Elizabeth T. Snow aw, Linda Spear ax, Donald E. Stevenson ay, Yolene Thomas az, Maurice Tubiana ba, Gary M. Williams bb, Mark P. Mattson bc
a School of Public Health, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA b University of Toledo, OH 43606, USA c Miami University, FL 33124, USA d US Food and Drug Administration, MD 20857, USA e Yale University, CT 06520, USA f University of Louisville School of Medicine, KY 40292, USA g The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL), Denmark h University of Western Ontario, Canada i Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan j University of Rochester, NY 14627, USA k RRC Consulting, LLC, TX 78727, USA l University of South Florida, FL 33620, USA m RJR Tobacco Company, NC 27101, USA n Eli Lilly and Company, IN 46285, USA o ARS, USDA, MD 20857, USA p Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Germany q Inhalation Toxicology Associates, DC 20006, USA r NCTR, US Food and Drug Administration (Retired), MD 20857, USA s Harvard University, MA 02114, USA t College of the Holy Cross, MA 01610, USA u Samueli Institute for Information Biology, VA 22314, USA v Central Lab for Radiological Protection, Warszawa, Poland w University of Colorado, CO 80309, USA x Michigan State University, MI 48824, USA Professional Consulting Services, USA z Indiana University School of Medicine, IN 46202, USA aa University of Louisville, KY 40292, USA ab Air Force Office of Scientific Research, VA 22203, USA ac European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy ad Jilin University Health Sciences Center, China ae World Council of Nuclear Workers, Paris, France af Sanofi-Aventis U.S. Inc., NJ 08807, USA ag University of Texas Health Science Center (Emeritus Professor), TX 78712, USA ah Toxicology and Human Health Risk Analysis, NM 87111, USA ai University of Louisiana, Monroe, LA 71209, USA aj McMaster University, Canada ak RTI International, MO 63080, USA al University of Florida, FL 32611, USA am Kansas State University, KS 66506, USA anUniversity of California–Irvine, CA 92697, USA ao University of Michigan School of Public Health, MI 48824, USA ap University of Aarhus, Denmark aq North Carolina State University, NC 27695, USA ar ENVIRON Int. Corp., TX 77056, USA as Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA at Harvard Medical School, MA 02114, USA au Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, NM 87108, USA av University of Wyoming, WY 82071, USA aw University of Tasmania, Australia ax Binghamton University, NY 13902, USA ay Dermigen Consulting Group, TX 78057, USA az Institut Andre Lwoff, France ba Centre Antoine Beclere, France bb New York Medical College, NY 10595, USA bc National Institute on Aging, MD 20877, USA
E.J. Calabrese et al. / Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 222 (2007) 122–128 http://pubag.nal.usda.gov/pubag/downloadPDF.xhtml?id=25517&content=PDF
Mussolini and Hitler Attribution: Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-B23938 / CC-BY-SA via Wikipedia: https://upload. wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3a/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-B23938%2C_Adolf_Hitler%2C_Benito_Mussolini.jpg