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Tsar Nicolas of Russia and George V of England
Tsar Nicholas II of Russia with his physically similar cousin, King George V of the United Kingdom (right), in German military uniforms in Berlin before the war; 1913https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_II_of_Russia
Moorside Sheep looking toward Sellafield Streetview
Sheep looking anxiously toward Sellafield from the area of the proposed Franco-Japanese (“GDF-Suez”, renamed “Engie” – Toshiba) Moorside Nuclear Power Station.

On 1 November 2006, Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalized. He died three weeks later, becoming the first confirmed victim of lethal polonium-210-induced acute radiation syndrome.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poisoning_of_Alexander_Litvinenko

On his deathbed, Alexander Litvinenko stated that Putin had him killed. He had the following to say about Putin: You have shown yourself to be as barbaric and ruthless as your most hostile critics have claimed. You have shown yourself to have no respect for life, liberty or any civilised value. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poisoning_of_Alexander_Litvinenko
Wait… this actually is why and how the Caribbean, the US, and Australia were populated with British political and religious dissenters – the British government lacked respect for life, liberty and civilised values. Royalists even got in trouble during Cromwell’s time. The UK government proved itself barbaric and ruthless to the Irish, to the Scots and, more generally, to those who objected to the government or its policies or were of the wrong religion. The “right” religion varied. It dumped exiled British upon the Irish, too, especially, but not only, during the period of the Irish “Plantations”. Given the choice of exile or death, most would take the former, if given the option. In some cases this required the ability to read, or knowledge of, the so-called “neck verse” from the Bible. Most of those sent to work in the tobacco fields of Virginia were dead within the year. The same was probably true of those sent to the Caribbean. There were also kidnappings by slave traders, especially within Ireland. (See more under notes.)

And, the UK appears to not have changed as much as one would think. And, the US works hard at diluting the rebellious traditions of these original colonists by importing plentifiul economic migrants from places like India and China, who are happy to have hot water, rather those arriving because they are in political hot water. While Russia appears worse, it seems a matter of degree and not of kind.

In April of this year, UK “Law changed so nuclear waste dumps can be forced on local communities: “Zac Goldsmith, one of the few government MPs who broke ranks to vote against the move, criticised the lack of public debate about such a ‘big’ change. ‘Effectively it strips local authorities of the ability to stop waste being dumped in their communities,’ he said.” Emphasis our own. Entire article here: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/apr/05/law-changed-so-nuclear-waste-dumps-can-be-forced-on-local-communities

It was 25 years after the Windscale (renamed Sellafield) fire, before the UK made official public estimates of total population dose. However, they failed to discuss the effects of Polonium 210, “which was released in significant quantities, has a high take-up rate by the body… Polonium, a strong alpha-emitter, is a little-known element that formed a vital component in early atomic bombs – the ‘initiator’ at the heart of the triggering mechanism. At the time of the fire, polonium was being produced by irradiating bismuth in a side channel at the Windscale pile./ The main radioactive cloud from the Windscale fire travelled south-east across most of England and on over Europe… On site, construction workers had been exposed to up to 150 times the maximum permissible level of radioactivity. They were told to go indoors but were not told what was happening to them. Local farmers and villagers received 10 times the maximum permitted lifetime radioactive dose. The UKAEA and the government of the day knew this but decided not to evacuate anyone./ Two days after the fire the government did take some action, as it was clear that local milk supplies had been contaminated by the radioisotope iodine-131,…the fire at Windscale was not the first incident at the plant to be officially covered up on the direct instructions of Prime Minister Harold Macmillan.” (Greenpeace, see more below).

This is what 78 year old Hilda Murrell wrote about the tendency of the nuclear industry to necessitate dictatorship, just before she was mysteriously murdered in 1984, possibly at the hand of the UK government: “It also has an inbuilt tendency to dictatorship, of which there was an unpleasant instance this summer, Sir Peter Hirsch, the new director of UKAEA, said on Channel 4 early in June that local authorities must eventually agree to underground sites being used for the disposal of intermediate radioactive nuclear waste. He suspected that ‘there are ways of doing this by offering them something’. At this the Ordinary Citizen’s blood really does boil. Note the ‘must’, and the pressure to be applied. By what right does Sir Peter Hirsch dictate to local councils elected by their own people? We have heard about freedom and democracy ad nauseam during the last twelve months, we don’t need to be told, they are the British birthright; but it seems we shall have to start defending them in our backyard.https://wikispooks.com/wiki/File:An_Ordinary_View.pdf 62 year old lawyer, Scots nationalist, and anti-nuclear activist, Willie MacRae, was assassinated shortly thereafter.

While thinking about history, it is notable that Putin’s grandfather was Lenin’s cook. Lenin is believed to have been poisoned by Stalin. Putin’s grandfather then became Stalin’s cook. Who is in the best position to poison someone? It is believed that Stalin was poisoned too. Hum…. Some claim that Putin is related to the Tsars, which means that he would be close kin to Queen Elizabeth. The Tsars were known for their police state.

So the evidence shows Mr Litvinenko was right when, on his death bed, he signed a statement accusing Putin personally of having ordered his assassination. Mr Litvinenko said from the earliest stages after he became ill, from 1 November 2006, that only the Russian authorities could have been behind his poisoning. And on Mr Litvinenko 21 November 2006 signed a statement in which he said Putin was responsible. He said this in the presence of ML, Mr Goldfarb and a solicitor called George Menzies, all of whom were confident that the statement reflected Mr Litvinenko’s genuine opinion” (“Closing Submissions 31/07/2015 Marina and Anatoly Litvinenko Closing Submissions“) Emphasis added. Entire statement here: https://www.litvinenkoinquiry.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/ML-Closing-Submissions.pdf

The Windscale fire of 10 October 1957 was the worst nuclear accident in Great Britain’s history, ranked in severity at level 5 on the 7-point International Nuclear Event Scale.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windscale_fire Each of three proposed Moorside nuclear reactors is 6 times bigger than Windscale. They are bigger than the Chernobyl reactor.

In “Windscale fallout underestimated“, by Rebecca Morelle-BBC News, 6 October 2007, one finds a rare map of the Windscale fallout plume: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7030536.stm It seems to have traveled about the same distance as the Chernobyl fallout. Windscale was renamed Sellafield.

We used the above map (supported by distance from Chernobyl to the UK, since Chernobyl impacted the UK) to make a rough estimate map, to help people to think about the broader impacts of an accident at the Sellafield site, at proposed new nuclear reactors near Sellafield (Moorside), and really of any nuclear accident within Europe. The impacts were especially unfair since nuclear-free countries such as Norway, Denmark, and Austria were badly hit by Windscale and/or Chernobyl. Parts of nuclear free Ireland were also hit by Windscale, as well as Chernobyl.

Where the fallout from a nuclear accident lands depends on wind direction and rain at the time of the accident.
Windscale, Sellafield, Moorside UK fallout plume estimate
The direction of the wind is defined as the direction from which the wind is blowing. As Atlantic depressions pass the UK the wind typically starts to blow from the south or south west, but later comes from the west or north-west as the depression moves away. The range of directions between south and north-west accounts for the majority of occasions and the strongest winds nearly always blow from this range of directions. Spring time tends to have a maximum frequency of winds from the north east, due to a build of high pressure over Scandinavia at this time of year. Summer can have a greater incidence of north-west or west winds associated with sea breezes.http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/regional-climates/nw
UK OGL for Public Sector Information v3.0, Crown Copyright (Emphasis added)

From the Greenpeace Book of the Nuclear Age, 1989, John May pp. 86-90: “10 October 1957 Windscale, Sellafield, UK, Part 1 Source: Greenpeace Books The Greenpeace Book of the Nuclear Age

In early 1946 Britain’s nuclear scientists had returned from participating in the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos and from working on Canada’s Chalk River civil reactor programme, and the US had reorganised its atomic research programme, effectively cutting off the supply of both information and fissile material to the UK. Britain was determined to push ahead with its own independent research into nuclear weaponry and therefore a supply of plutonium had to be secured.

To meet this need, two plutonium production units were hurriedly built at Sellafield, an old munitions factory on the Cumbrian coast. The installation, named Windscale, consisted of two simple, air-cooled atomic piles in which natural uranium fuel, held in a matrix of graphite, was bombarded with neutrons, transmuting it into plutonium-239.

The graphite acted as a moderator, slowing the neutrons down and increasing the chances of a successful collision with the uranium nuclei, but this moderator exhibited a strange property. The neutrons knocked carbon atoms out of their normal positions in the graphite molecules, causing the graphite to change shape and to store energy. The need to release this energy (called Wigner energy after the scientist who first explained it) in a controlled manner was recognised when, in September 1952, the energy was spontaneously released. Fortunately, the reactor was shut down at the time. Controlled releases were subsequently carried out in a process that involved heating the graphite up by starting the nuclear chain reaction in the pile while shutting off the fans that normally provided cooling air.

On the evening of Monday 7 October 1957, when the Wigner energy had been allowed to build up for rather longer than usual, this procedure was begun. The fans were turned off, the pile was made critical and allowed to heat up overnight, and was then shut down the following day. However, temperature sensors in the core appeared to indicate that the full release of Wigner energy had not taken place, and so, unusually, the pile was heated up again. This time the sensors showed an abnormally rapid rise in temperature and so the power of the pile was reduced. During Wednesday 9 October all seemed normal, with the exception of one part of the core in which the temperature was steadily rising. On the Thursday morning cooling fans were turned on, and the temperature throughout the core dropped, apart from this hot spot in which the temperature continued to increase. At about the same time, monitoring equipment in the filters of the plant’s 150-m chimney registered a rise in radioactivity. By midday there was a further release of radioactivity, which also registered on monitors around the Windscale site, and air samples revealed 10 times the normal levels of activity.

By now it was clear that something had gone badly wrong and a burst fuel cartridge was suspected. Attempts to see inside the core using a scanner failed because the scanner had jammed, and, in the end, two members of staff wearing protective clothing removed a charge plug and looked inside the pile. The fuel channels that they could see were ablaze. The temperature at one point in the core had risen too far, a fuel cartridge had split, and the uranium had oxidised, releasing enough heat to ignite the graphite. The fans that had been turned on to bring the temperature down had had the effect of fanning the blaze. At the height of the fire, three tonnes of uranium were alight.

Workers attempted to push out the fuel elements and restrict the fire but progress was too slow and, in the early hours of Friday 11 October, the decision was taken to flood the pile with water. With the fire brigade in position and the police on standby (for no one knew whether the water might not cause a hydrogen/oxygen explosion), hoses were inserted into the core and the water was turned on. There was no explosion, and by 11:00 the fire was under control, though water was pumped in for a further 24 hours just to be sure.

Only now did the UKAEA make news of the accident available to the press. An official spokesman was quoted (Manchester Guardian, 12.10.57) as saying: ‘There was not a large amount of radiation released. The amount was not hazardous and in fact it was carried out to sea by the wind.’ None of this was true.

On site, construction workers had been exposed to up to 150 times the maximum permissible level of radioactivity. They were told to go indoors but were not told what was happening to them. Local farmers and villagers received 10 times the maximum permitted lifetime radioactive dose. The UKAEA and the government of the day knew this but decided not to evacuate anyone.

Two days after the fire the government did take some action, as it was clear that local milk supplies had been contaminated by the radioisotope iodine-131, which affects human thyroid glands. Some two million litres of milk from cows grazing in an area of more than 500 sq km around the plant were poured away into the sea and rivers. Local waterways gave off a sour stench for weeks afterwards.

Few contingency plans had been made for such an accident. At the time when the piles were originally being built, Sir John Cockcroft, the leading nuclear physicist of the time, had insisted that filters be installed in the chimneys as a safety measure. Known as ‘Cockcroft’s Folly’, these filters prevented a major accident from becoming a catastrophe.

Pile No. 1 never operated again and Pile No. 2 was shut down shortly afterwards. Now entombed in concrete, they stand today as ‘monuments to our ignorance’ in the words of Sir Christopher Hinton, the man responsible for their design and construction (New Scientist, 14.10.82). In Pile No. 1 there are still around 22 tonnes of melted and partly-burned fuel. The decommissioning of both piles began in 1987 and it will take decades to dismantle them completely.

The full report of the inquiry into the fire, written by the father of the British bomb, Sir William Penney, was not published at the time; it only became a public document in 1988 under the Thirty Year Rule (whereby British government papers are withheld from public scrutiny for a 30-year interval). The UKAEA had backed the view of its then chairman, Sir William Plowden, that the report should be published, as did the MOD. But Prime Minister Harold Macmillan kept it secret on the basis that a recently forged agreement with US President Eisenhower, for joint research into nuclear defence, could be jeopardised by the news.

It was not until 25 years after the fire that official estimates of the total population dose resulting from the release of radiation were made public. In 1982, the NRPB, a regulatory body advising the government on nuclear safety and radiation limits, published a report (‘An assessment of the radiological impact of the Windscale fire, October 1957’) that claimed to be a ‘complete description of the radiological impact of the fire’. In this they considered the effects of 41 isotopes released at the time, and estimated that the fallout from the accident had caused 260 cases of cancer, 13 of them fatal. But these investigations ignored the effect of another more dangerous isotope which was released in significant quantities, has a high take-up rate by the body, and has a half-life of 140 days – polonium-210.

Polonium, a strong alpha-emitter, is a little-known element that formed a vital component in early atomic bombs – the ‘initiator’ at the heart of the triggering mechanism. At the time of the fire, polonium was being produced by irradiating bismuth in a side channel at the Windscale pile.

The main radioactive cloud from the Windscale fire travelled south-east across most of England and on over Europe. According to John Urquhart, a statistician at Newcastle-upon-Tyne University, this cloud contained 370 curies of polonium, which translates into a dose of some 850,000 man-rems. Urquhart says, ‘We are therefore talking about more than a thousand deaths from the Windscale accident.’ The NRPB subsequently revised their figures, claiming there would be 32 deaths, half of them due to polonium. Many people affected by the fire are now seeking compensation.

A research paper by P. M. E. Sheehan and I. B. Hillary in the British Medical Journal (November 1983) revealed that in a study of 47 married fertile women, who had been students at an Irish boarding school across the Irish Sea from Windscale in 1957, six had given birth to Down’s Syndrome children. The high incidence of Down’s Syndrome is especially significant given that the average age of the mothers at the time of birth was 26.8 years; it is unusual for mothers of this age to give birth to Down’s Syndrome babies.

In January 1989, under the Thirty Year Rule, it was revealed that the fire at Windscale was not the first incident at the plant to be officially covered up on the direct instructions of Prime Minister Harold Macmillan. He also personally sanctioned a news black-out on an incident earlier in 1957.

In spring that year there was a leak of strontium-90 from Windscale, which contaminated milk from more than 800 Cumbrian farms. In a secret memorandum John Hare, the Minister for Agriculture, told Macmillan: ‘During the summer, the readings on some farms have been many times higher than the national average and up to ten times the highest recorded figures for weapon fallout in the wet hill areas.’ (Independent, 2.1.89.) He added that no action was being taken ‘to prevent milk being consumed or produced on farms in the area’, and warned that ‘The readings in the area cannot be concealed indefinitely.’

On 24 October Hare wrote again to Macmillan to inform him that the Medical Research Council had set new standards for the ‘permissible daily intake of strontium-90’. The standards were considerably relaxed, a development that Hare described as ‘very satisfactory’. Macmillan’s response was short and to the point: ‘Nothing must be published without my seeing and approving.’

Hare developed a plan for a carefully orchestrated and gradual release of the news following a softening-up operation which culminated in a planted written Commons question. No information about the accident was released for more than 18 months.

Furthermore, it now appears that the incident was just one of a number of unpublicised releases of strontium-90 in the mid-1950s caused by the bursting of spent fuel elements being
prepared for reprocessing.
” From: http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/planet-2/report/2006/2/the-greenpeace-book-of-the-nuc.pdf (Emphasis our own).

Information on the Litvinen inquiry: https://www.litvinenkoinquiry.org/hearings

See more here:
https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2015/04/25/windscale-moorside-sellafield-accident-impact-fallout-map/
https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2015/06/29/uk-nuclear-transboundary-impact-case-pending-until-after-march-2016-espoo-convention-implementation-committee-expressed-profound-suspicion-of-non-compliance-by-the-uk/
https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2015/02/13/tourism-milk-and-cheese-or-nuclear/

Notes: The movie and book “Captain Blood” by Rafael Sabatini is based on history. Interestingly, it was about a doctor who helped a rebel in the area of the current Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station, and was sent as a slave to the Caribbean as punishment. It is apparently based on a real story. It is a rare account of this white “slavery”. While technically it was indenture, they were sold like slaves, and as observed above, few from Britain and Ireland (which even now is avoiding the European heat waves) could resist field work in Virginia (aka “American Plantation”) for long. If they survived a year their value went up. Those indentured in the north, who more often apprenticed as skilled workers, had better survival rates and prospects. Probably mosquitos took their toll along with the heat in the South. The same is surely true of the Caribbean. In the Caribbean, the white indentured and black slaves were intentionally mixed, presumably to make the whites more resistant. Not only is this documented, but it has lived on in family tradition and in blood type. The first Africans to arrive in the US were also indentured servants, rather than chattel slaves. Whether or not it was promoted, mixing went on, as well, in Virginia and the Carolinas. For a very long time the child was classified as the same race as its mother. Africans enslaved for life had little hope of freedom, which is a big difference from being indentured, and which African Americans are quick to point out. There were many tricks for extending the time of indenture, however. Furthermore, because indentured servants were cheaper, their lives were reportedly held in less value within the US. In Latin America it was cheaper to replace the slaves than to feed and take care of them. This hyper cruelty is one factor which accounts for the successful Haitian Revolution. More generally, bad people appear to have treated their slaves badly, and often treated their wives badly, as well. Reading about the history of the Irish Plantations, the history of Bermuda and Barbados, and the history of Virginia, is a good place to start on the issue of white indenture. It is important to read about the Highland and Lowland clearances of Scotland too. It is well-known that Australia was a prison colony and that the State of Georgia was. It is much less well-known that other US states, Ireland and the Caribbean served as prison colonies. This included political prisoners, as well as petty criminals and the mentally ill. In the Maisons-Alfort women’s prison, near Paris, there was an uprising, because they did not want to be sent to Louisiana. And, while they were not sent, due to the revolt, Louisiana was desperate for women colonists and so sent prostitutes, etc., there, making it a sort of prison colony too. The random kidnapping of people in Ireland was documented by two ladies who were there on vacation, and who were kidnapped and sent to the Caribbean. They wrote home for help.

See also : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benefit_of_clergy https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transportation_Act_of_1718, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Captain_Blood_(novel), 1685 trial of the doctor (Peter Blood) who helped rebels in the area of the current Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station: http://youtu.be/RDB0h7UWCIs Auction of (white) British slaves: http://youtu.be/A-NyvY2i3Is Treatment of the (white) British slaves: http://youtu.be/a9ezfgaGaTU Historical context: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monmouth_Rebellion While Peter Blood is a fictitious character, he is based on a real one and the novel (and movie) was based on history. It is entertaining, as well.