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Radionuclides have been known to be deadly since before the beginning of the nuclear age. Plutonium was predicted to be deadly before it was made, because it would be similar to Radium, but it turned out to be even worse. (On radium see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radium_Girls). Marie Curie died in 1934, aged 66, from aplastic anemia brought on by exposure to radiation while working with radium and X-ray units: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Curie That ionizing radiation causes cancer has been documented for over 100 years: “By 1900, Clarence Dally was suffering radiation damage to his hands and face sufficient to require time off work. In 1902, one lesion on his left wrist was treated unsuccessfully with multiple skin grafts and eventually his left hand was amputated. An ulceration on his right hand necessitated the amputation of four fingers./ These procedures failed to halt the progression of his carcinoma, and despite the amputation of his arms at the elbow and shoulder, he died from mediastinal cancer. Dally is thought to be the first American to die from the effects of experimentation with radiation. Following this, Thomas Edison abandoned his research on X-rays. In 1903, Edison said ‘Don’t talk to me about X-rays, I am afraid of them.” (Emphasis our own). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clarence_Madison_Dally The dangers had been suspected for even longer, due to illnesses in miners (e.g. Schneeberger disease).

In 1950, William Russell of Oak Ridge National Lab stated: “There is no threshold dose. In other words, genetic changes may be expected at any dose, no matter how small….

Genetic damage from ionizing radiation was actually already demonstrated in the 1920s in fruit-flies! They were ideal for research because of short life-spans.

In 2006, the US government funded BEIR report concluded, once again, that there is no safe dose of ionizing radiation: “A comprehensive review of the biology data led the committee to conclude that the risk would continue in a linear fashion at lower doses with-out a threshold and that the smallest dose has the potential to cause a small increase in risk to humans. This assumption is termed the ‘linear no-threshold model” ( “Public Summary & Executive Summary.” Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2.” Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.)http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11340&page=7

Thus, only those liking to live on the edge-with a death wish, those forced, and/or those who are ignorant of the facts, or not too bright, or in denial, would work with nuclear anything. The possible exceptions would be those who worked with it when Hitler was believed to have a nuclear weapon, and when Stalin had nuclear weapons. But, Stalin died in 1953. The Cold War has been over for almost a quarter of a century, and the use of nuclear power was never necessary, and initiated as a cover for weapons production.

The US Navy had people cheating on Naval Nuclear Reactor exams for years – perhaps a decade or longer. At one time people were mostly drafted into the US Navy. More recently, those who enter do so to see the world; to pay for their schooling; to escape troubled homes; because they are unemployed; and more rarely due to patriotism.

But, no one who is truly bright would choose to train to work with Naval Nuclear reactors, or any nuclear reactors. They may choose to go into the Navy, but not to work with nuclear reactors.

Thus, it should not be surprising that there was a cheating ring on the US Naval Nuclear reactor exams. This cheating ring may well have gone on for decades. It may help explain that many in the nuclear industry appear to know nothing, though maybe it’s just their BS degrees in bogus BS fields like Nuclear “Engineering” and “Health” Physics. The Nuclear Navy seems to be a feeder for the NRC and nuclear industry. Where else would they easily find people these days who are supposedly trained in the nuclear field? (Of course, the US DOE is actually giving out scholarships for people to study and perpetuate these bogus fields of study, but the amounts given are too small to provide much incentive.) If they cheated on exams, this could explain why they appear to know nothing. The head of the Nuclear division of the EPRI, utility front group, is an old UK Nuclear Navy man, too. These former Nuclear Navy guys have popped up in the US EPA, US NRC, and appear disproportionately at the fore-front of all things nuclear. A bane they are, for they perpetuate the bane to life itself – nuclear power.

A former Nuclear Navy man, Kevin Ramsey, who is supposed to work for the US NRC, and paid by the US taxpayer, submitted the only uploaded comment on a US NRC safety document with deadline Monday (Fuel Cycle Oversight Process; Request for Comment: Draft Cornerstone Development Document). He appears opposed to safety in Nuclear Fuel production: “The cost of emergency preparedness at fuel facilities cannot be justified in terms of protecting public health and safety.“, and “emergency preparedness cornerstone should be deleted.” Rather, he wants local police and fire-fighters to deal with an emergency. His comment, written within the last few days, is the only one which has been uploaded, as of today. It took a bit of effort to figure out that he works for the NRC and not for Nuclear Fuel Services in Erwin, Tennessee. Elsewhere, he is adamant that nuclear fuel facilities do not have to have liability insurance. And, shockingly they don’t!

Meanwhile, an elderly crank quack, Carol Marcus, who claims to be a doctor-professor at UCLA, has forced an NRC comment period (deadline in Sept.) trying to gather support for her notion that low doses of radiation are good for you! She trained at a VA hospital, so maybe she caught some Nuclear Navy lunacy there. As noted above, they knew it wasn’t good for you in the 1950s. They knew that any dose caused genetic damage. So, going to school in the 1950s is no excuse for her! They only learned how muscles functioned in the 1950s, but they had already long known that ionizing radiation is bad for you. A comment in support of her idiocy is from another old Nuclear Navy man, “Keith”, who has the audacity to admit to having worked as a start-up engineer at Fukushima.
140204-D-NI589-203 WASHINGTON (Feb. 2, 2014) Chief of Naval Operations Navy Adm. Jonathan W. Greenert and Navy Adm. John Richardson, director of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, brief reporters at the Pentagon, Feb. 4, 2014, on the Navy’s investigation into allegations of compromised test materials. DOD photo by Glenn Fawcett

NNPP Addresses Integrity Issue at Nuclear power Training Unit Story Number: NNS140820-04
Release Date: 8/20/2014 12:53:00 PM
By Tom Dougan, Public Affairs for Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program

WASHINGTON (NNS) — On February 3, 2014, a Sailor assigned to the Moored Training Ship (MTS 626) at the Nuclear Power Training Unit (NPTU) in Charleston, South Carolina reported that an examination key was compromised. The exam key that was compromised was for one of the staff certification exams for one of eleven watch station positions at one of the two Moored Training Ships on the Charleston site.

In response to the initial report, Admiral John Richardson, Director, Naval Reactors, executed a comprehensive plan consisting of four major lines of action:

– Initiated an immediate assessment to verify that the reactors were being operated safely. This was confirmed by an independent examination of all personnel at the site. At no time was there any question of reactor safety.

– Initiated an inquiry regarding the climate in the NNPP, with a special focus on training sites in Charleston, SC and in Schenectady, NY. This effort will involve a thorough review of all areas of the Program, including pressures on leadership, training, work life balance, and schedules. This inquiry will determine ways to enhance ethical conduct and eliminate obstacles to moral behavior.

– Initiated an effort to implement best practices in exam security across the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (NNPP). These best practices enact stronger administrative and technological controls to improve the preparation, security, and administration of training and qualification exams.

– Appointed Rear Admiral Ken M. Perry, Commander, Submarine Group Two, to lead a JAGMAN investigation into misconduct at the NPTU.

The recommendations of the investigation into command climate matters are being adopted for implementation across the NNPP. These actions are in progress. These measures will involve a renewed and deliberate command focus on the matter of enhancing ethical behavior across the Program and will include new training on ethics and integrity, and a specific command focus and reporting requirement of actions to enhance the ethical climate of their commands. Those measures that have broader application to the Navy will be provided to the Navy Leadership and Ethics Center in Newport, RI for consideration for broader application.

With respect to exam security, several measures have been taken, and others are still in progress, to clarify the acceptable methods of studying for exams and conducting training and qualification programs including the preparation, security and administration of exams,

With respect to the specific misconduct at the NPTU in Charleston, SC, in response to the findings of the JAGMAN investigation, 69 Sailors received a hearing at Admiral’s mast. 34 Sailors were found to have cheated and assisted others to cheat. These personnel were administratively removed from the NNPP, had their Security Clearances revoked, and are being processed for administrative separation from the U.S. Naval service.

10 additional personnel remain under investigation by the Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS). The great majority of the 16,000 nuclear-trained Sailors perform their duties every day, across the world, with the highest standards of honor, courage and commitment. They make tremendous sacrifices to support and defend the nation’s interests. As a result of this incident, the NNPP has identified a number of areas that will further improve the ethical strength of the Program and the Navy.
http://www.navy. mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=82853
Does the nuclear industry exist as a make work project for these nuclear-trained sailors? Military has long been a make work project for the poor – whether starving Swiss who became mercenaries or Highlanders and Irish stripped of their lands and forced into military service for the British Empire – the very people who stole their lands!
Naval Reactor Cheating investigation Feb. 2014  A
Nuclear Navy Cheating Feb. 2014 B

See also: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/05/us/politics/navy-is-investigating-reports-of-sailors-cheating-on-tests.html?_r=0

Kevin Ramsey, Senior Project Manager, USNRC
1988 – Present (27 years)
Nuclear Engineer, Norfolk Naval Shipyard
July 1983 – July 1988 (5 years 1 month)
Worked in Engineering Group of Radiological Control Office (Code 105.2). Mostly with treatment and disposal of radwaste.

Fuel Cycle Oversight Process; Request for Comment http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail;D=NRC-2015-0149
Comment submitted by Ramsey:
ID: NRC-2015-0149-0003 Tracking Number: 1jz-8jht-99pk
Jul 9, 2015
His statement that Nuclear Fuel Services doesn’t have to have liability insurance: http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1132/ML11325A113.pdf

An old Nuclear Navy man with a BS degree in the BS fake degree of Nuclear “Engineering” is supporting wacko Carol Marcus’ radiation is good for you proposal at the US NRC. At least he has the excuse of knowing nothing about biological sciences. For that matter, with a BS degree in Nuclear “Engineering” he has an excuse for knowing nothing. The elderly expletive, Carol Marcus, who is spear-heading this atrocity of a comment period alleging that radiation is good for you, has no such excuses. If she has senile dementia, then it was early onset, because she’s been proposing the nutty idea for some time. She is trying to strip people of their ability to live past retirement, even as she should be retired. They knew that radiation was bad for you already when she was in school in the 1950s. No excuses. She will be dead of old age soon and wants to leave everyone else sick and dying with her evil proposal. Frighteningly she has served on a US FDA advisory board. Radiation induced cancers strip people of 14 to 15 years of their lives. So, she’s trying to deprive people of living to be as old as she has. She probably cut her teeth doing US government funded radionuclide experiments on dogs and other animals.

For cancer mortality, the years of life lost per death are also of interest. For the sum of sites estimates, this was 14 per death for males and 15 per death for females.
12 Estimating Cancer Risk.” Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2.” Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.

While the old Nuclear Navy man apparently meant to be writing against radiation safety, he made a slip up and said “Please listen to… Helen Caldicott” while then calling her “crazy”. He and Carol Marcus are the ones who are crazy. Helen Caldicott just happens to be familiar with facts. But, for the pro-nuclear fanatics who prefer to live in nuclear fantasy land, those stating facts are “crazy”. Theirs is an upside down world. I look forward to nuclear “Keith” eating his words, as he dies a painful death of cancer. And pray that the same fate befall psychopathic Carol Marcus.

The 2 rem to which Nuclear Navy Keith refers for Japan is 20 mSv, which barring any other exposures, means that in 5 years there would be a 1% excess risk of cancers, and more for women and children, according to the US government funded BEIR report. He was a start up engineer at Fukushima and has the poor taste to mention it.

ID: NRC-2015-0057-0028
Tracking Number: 1jz-8jqp-k1nv
Docket Numbers. PRM-20-28, PRM-20-29, and PRM-20-30 are true and accurate. I have worked in Nuclear Power since 1969. I first was a reactor operator , USN 1967-1973, submarines. Then BSNE 1973-1977 U of Wisc. Madison. Start-up Engineer BWRs 1978-79 at Fukushima then Fermi and other NPPs, still work at NPPs. I received 1 Rem in 1/2 hour in USN. no problem… The 2 Rem annual dose limit in Japan is ridiculous… Please listen to the uninformed Helen Caldicott, she is a crazy anti-nuke MD that lies constantly and can’t prove anything she says. Is she the one that you agree with?… Thanks, Keith BSNE ’77 PE Mi, CA

While this Nuclear Navy man may well have been drafted during the Vietnam war, anyone who would willingly go on a nuclear sub has to be nuts and like to live on the edge or not very bright. He may have taken too much radiation to the brain. Ditto for all of the other pro-nuke nuts – old Nuclear Navy men or not.

Think I’m kidding? See: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2014/03/14/alzheimers-disease-and-ionizing-radiation/

Linear No Threshold Model comment docket
(This is misnamed for the purpose is to undermine it. The pro-nuclear lobby is asking for an extension so there may be one._