140 year drought, American Indian Rights, American Indians, aquifer, AREVA, arsenic, ASLB, Azarga, Battle of Little Bighorn, black hills, Black Hills Gold Rush, boreholes, Cameco, clean water, Clean Water Act, creation, Crow Butte Uranium mine, Dewey Burdock, drinking water, drought, earth, Edgemont South Dakota, EIS, environment, Environmental Impact Statement, George Armstrong Custer, gold, Great Sioux Reservation, Indigenous peoples, ISL uranium mining, ISR uranium mining, Judge Bollwerk, Judge Cole, Judge Cole death, justice, Lakota, Lakota Sioux, Lakota worldview, lawyers, Mitakuye Oyasin, National Historic Preservation Act, Native Americans, Nebraska, NEPA, New Mexico, NRC, nuclear energy, nuclear waste, Oglala Sioux, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, Pine Ridge reservation, Pope Francis, Powertech, radionuclides in water, radium, Seventh Calvary, South Dakota, St. Francis of Assisi, TVA, uranium mining, Urenco, US NRC, Vogtle, Wyoming
Even as Obama pretends to love the Lakota Sioux, he does nothing to protect them from foreign uranium miners.
Standing Rock Sioux Reservation, June 2014, by WH-Pete Souza
“Like a handful of battles in American history, the defeat of 12 companies of Seventh Cavalry by Lakota (Sioux), Cheyenne, and Arapaho warriors rose beyond its military significance to the level of myth.” http://www.nps.gov/libi/indian-memorial-at-the-little-bighorn.htm
American Indians learned that they cannot beat the superior force of the US military in the long run, and instead must use lawyers to fight for the land.
Charles Marion Russell – The Custer Fight (1903)
Image from “Crying Earth Rise Up! Environmental Justice & The Survival Of A People: Uranium Mining & the Oglala Lakota People”(Copy Left by Owe Aku, Bring Back the Way); color added.
Most people think that these abuses of the American Indians are past history. But, they are ongoing. In the Black Hills, first it was about gold; then about uranium; and now about uranium again. The last round of uranium mining in the Black Hills still has not been cleaned up. http://www.cleanupthemines.org/category/press-releases/
There are ongoing appeals to the US NRC Atomic Safety Licensing Board (ASLB) over whether or not Penny Stock, Canadian registered, Azarga (formerly Powertech) can do In Situ Leach (ISL) uranium mining in the area of the Black Hills (Dewey Burdock), and August hearings about the proposed extension to Canadian uranium giant Cameco’s Crow Butte ISL Mine. These involve not only probable groundwater contamination, but the deadly radium and other by-products may be sprayed on the land, or injected into the earth, or some combination of both. This serves as more evidence that nuclear energy is dirty in every sort of way.
“Tension between the U.S. and the Lakota escalated in 1874, when Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer was ordered to make an exploration of the Black Hills inside the boundary of the Great Sioux Reservation. Custer was to map the area, locate a suitable site for a future military post, and to make note of the natural resources. During the expedition, professional geologists discovered deposits of gold. Word of the discovery of mineral wealth caused an invasion of miners and entrepreneurs to the Black Hills in direct violation of the treaty of 1868. The U.S. negotiated with the Lakota to purchase the Black Hills, but the offered price was rejected by the Lakota. The climax came in the winter of 1875, when the Commissioner of Indian Affairs issued an ultimatum requiring all Sioux to report to a reservation by January 31, 1876. The deadline came with virtually no response from the Indians, and matters were handed to the military.” (US Park Service – read more below)
Recently Pope Francis has cited St. Francis of Assisi: “Praise be to you, my Lord, through our Sister, Mother Earth, who sustains and governs us,…”, and added: “This sister now cries out to us because of the harm we have inflicted on her by our irresponsible use and abuse of the goods with which God has endowed her,” and he teaches us that St. Francis of Assisi “would call creatures, no matter how small, by the name of ‘brother’ or ‘sister“. As Pope Francis points out: “Underground water sources in many places are threatened by the pollution produced in certain mining, farming and industrial activities,…” (Encyclical Letter, Laudato Si, of the Holy Father, Francis, On Care of our Common Home”, June 2015)
The tone of the new Encyclical is similar to the Lakota view, as expressed in the Intro to “Crying Earth Rise Up! Environmental Justice & The Survival Of A People: Uranium Mining & the Oglala Lakota People”:
“… from the Lakota perspective, there is no line drawn between human beings and the environment. Commonly, when reading literature about the impacts of mining, there are statements about the effects of mining on the environment and the effects of mining on human beings. That line doesn’t exist in the Lakota mind. In the Lakota way of being, we have a philosophy that is bedrock to our way of life, that is the saying: “Mitakuye Oyasin”, which is in itself a “prayer”, which is said at certain points in our way of life, which means “All My Relations.” Our role in Creation, in the Universe, is seamless, there is no line between us and the environment, human health and the environment are connected. This publication is also intended to provide awareness about In Situ Leach/Recovery Uranium mining and its effects as there are ISL uranium mines to the southern border of Pine Ridge Reservation, to our western border, and there are mines planned to our northern border. There are plans to develop additional mines near the existing mines. We will be surrounded by uranium mining if these corporations get their way. To our north, there are already several abandoned uranium mines from years ago, when TVA did open pit uranium mining in the southern Black Hills, near the small town of Edgemont, South Dakota. There are still waste piles enclosed at the site of these old mines. The drinking water on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation was acknowledged as unfit for human consumption by the United States government when they funded the Rural Water Project in the late 1980’s. This project’s purpose is to provide drinking water to our people on the Pine Ridge, water from the Missouri River that will be delivered through a pipeline. So far, pipeline has been laid across hundreds of miles and millions of dollars have been spent, and still no one on Pine Ridge has received one drop of Missouri River water. Endangered water supplies do not need more contamination coming in from new uranium mines. Do the contaminants in the drinking water on Pine Ridge come from the old abandoned uranium mines and their waste piles in the Edgemont area? From the uranium mines in Wyoming and Nebraska? From minerals naturally occurring? From the Badlands bombing range? Maybe the answer is “yes” to all questions. All drinking water tests and studies conducted during the past 30 years reveal contaminants in the water. The most recent test results were received the day this paper went to print, showing illegal levels of radioactive elements in the drinking water, water from wells in the Arikaree Aquifer. From the Lakota spiritual point of view, water is our relative, we are obligated to protect our relative. All of Creation is our relative. Our future generations will be impacted by the effects of uranium mining, we are obligated to protect them, our coming generations, our relatives, from the impacts of uranium mining. Protection of our coming generations and of water includes stopping any new contaminants from entering our drinking water and our human bodies. That is the point where this work of “Crying Earth Rise Up” begins, to challenge the corporate uranium mines from renewing their existing mining permits, to challenge the corporations in the process they’ve begun to attain new permits. There are plans for new mines in Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming, and South Dakota. This publication also includes information about the corporations intent to start new uranium mines in the Heart of Everything That Is, the sacred He Sapa (Black Hills)“. From the Intro of “Crying Earth Rise Up! Environmental Justice & The Survival Of A People: Uranium Mining & the Oglala Lakota People” (Copy Left by Owe Aku, Bring Back the Way, Emphasis added) http://www.mining-law-reform.info/lakotasurvival.pdf
Crow Butte ISL Uranium Mine
“Crying Earth Rise Up! Environmental Justice & The Survival Of A People: Uranium Mining & the Oglala Lakota People“, p. 3 (Copy Left by Owe Aku, Bring Back the Way )
Dr. LaGarry explains that Crow Butte ISL near Crawford, Nebraska, is upstream along the White River from the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and that there is an upcoming hearing 24-26 August 2015. He warns that “Research has shown that we’re about 30 years into a 140-year cycle of drought that will get much worse before it gets any better.” See: “Oglala Lakota College challenges safety of uranium mining in Black Hills“, March 31, 2015, “Testimony by Dr. Hannan LaGarry spotlights the vital role of research in tribal colleges” http://online.swc.tc/peec/
“Crying Earth Rise Up! Environmental Justice & The Survival Of A People: Uranium Mining & the Oglala Lakota People“, p. 6(Copy Left by Owe Aku, Bring Back the Way )
The judge on the Atomic Safety Licensing Board (ASLB), who someone thought appeared more sympathetic to protecting the water, from the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium mining, mysteriously died last December at a critical juncture in the case. Judge Cole was no spring chicken at 79 years old, but he died of something at that age. The timing is such that it is very hard to believe that it was a coincidence. Perhaps he was already dying of cancer, which gave him sympathy to the need for clean water, or maybe he was helped along. It’s easier to get by with bumping people off when people are older. Take note – people don’t die of old age except maybe in their 100s. Even then they died of something – even if it’s neglect. His death remains as unexplained and mysterious as that of former AREVA CEO Luc Oursel. Oursel was younger. The online obits tell us nothing at all. Both could even still be alive! Judge Cole was just replaced by Judge Bollwerk, who has a dubious background. See Bollwerk’s ruling on URENCO’s LES Environmental Impact here: https://www.nirs.org/les/06082005aslborder.pdf Bollwerk was also involved in Vogtle permitting and in Areva’s proposed enrichment facility. (The Black-footed ferret and other endangered animals were apparently thrown out of the case when Judge Barnett was absent. https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2014/08/09/one-of-worlds-most-endangered-animals-at-risk-by-proposed-penny-stock-uranium-mining-will-it-be-saved/ But, Judge Cole’s death at a critical juncture of testimony/ruling about the boreholes/water should be explained if they don’t want people to be suspicious.)
The 2 remaining judges allowed through this travesty: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2015/05/24/isl-uranium-mining-water-restoration-part-ii-gaming-the-stats-us-epa-deadline-27-may-2015/ Bollwerk was only appointed this month.
While to their credit they found that the Native American cultural, religious and historic resources hadn’t been properly considered, this is small consolation if the environment which supports living Native Americans is not protected!
Excerpts from the May 26, 2015, OGLALA SIOUX TRIBE’S PETITION FOR REVIEW OF LPB-15-16 AND DECISIONS FINDING TRIBAL CONTENTIONS INADMISSIBLE:
“The ASLB found that the FSEIS “has not adequately addressed the environmental effects of the Dewey-Burdock project on Native American cultural, religious, and historic resources, and the required meaningful consultation between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and the NRC Staff has not taken place.” LPB-15-16 at 42. Despite this finding of violations and a lack of compliance with both NEPA and the National Historic Preservation Act, the Board nevertheless allowed the Record of Decision and the license itself to stand. Federal law prohibits such a result, as it is contrary to the statutory requirement that NEPA and the NHPA compliance precede and inform the agency action, which here, is the license to conduct operations and possess/dispose of 11e2 Byproduct Material. The Commission should exercise review over this important issue to ensure that its programs maintain compliance with federal statutory mandates…” (p. 18)
“This case involves Powertech’s application to conduct In Situ Recovery (ISR) mining in Custer and Fall River Counties, South Dakota. The proposed mine is within the ancestral land of the Oglala Sioux Tribe and threatens the Tribe’s cultural and groundwater resources, among other substantial impacts. As a result, the Oglala Sioux Tribe petitioned for, and was granted, intervention in the proceeding, along with individuals and organizations collectively referred to as the Consolidated Intervenors. The Tribe was granted standing by the ASLB, which admitted several contentions based on Powertech’s application materials as well as the subsequent Draft and Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (DSEIS and FSEIS). The ASLB also excluded a number of the Tribe’s contentions as inadmissible.
The ASLB held a multi-day adjudicatory hearing on August 19-21, 2014 in Rapid City, South Dakota. During the hearing, it was established that Powertech had failed to disclose a substantial amount of geological data in the form of borehole logs from thousands of holes and wells drilled in the project area. The ASLB ordered the production of the data and provided a narrow opportunity for additional testimony related to the newly-disclosed information.
The ASLB issued a Partial Initial Decision on April 30, 2015 resolving seven admitted contentions, five in favor of the NRC Staff and Powertech, and two in favor of the Tribe and
Consolidated Intervenors. This Petition for Review seeks Commission review of three contentions resolved in favor of NRC Staff and Powertech, four of the contentions the ASLB excluded from the proceedings as inadmissible, and two contentions on which the Tribe prevailed, but the ASLB did not provide effective relief.” (p. 2)
“The ASLB held that the Tribe had not successfully articulated a contention because it had “not identified a regulation that requires a disposal plan be included in an application.” (p. 3)
“The ASLB further disregarded the Tribe’s allegation that the environmental report failed to meet the standards of the National Environmental Policy Act, because in the ASLB’s view “it is settled law that an applicant is not bound by NEPA, but by NRC Regulations in Part 51.” (p.4)
“The OIG’s Audit Report concluded, with specific reference to the Dewey-Burdock project, that “NRC did not fully comply with the scoping regulations because of incorrect understanding of the regulations related to scoping for EISs that tier off of a generic EIS.” (p. 7)
“the testimony submitted by Dr. Hannan LaGarry (Exhibit OST-029)(ML14325A866) demonstrated that the data shows significant problems associated with the geologic setting that were not evaluated or reviewed in any NEPA document.” (p. 9) Excerpted from “UNITED STATES OF AMERICA NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION BEFORE THE COMMISSION In the Matter of POWERTECH (USA) INC. Docket No. 40-9075-MLA ASLBP No. 10-898-02-MLA-BD01 (Dewey-Burdock In Situ Uranium Recovery Facility May 26, 2015 OGLALA SIOUX TRIBE’S PETITION FOR REVIEW OF LPB-15-16 AND DECISIONS FINDING TRIBAL CONTENTIONS INADMISSIBLE” (29 pp. Emphasis added) http://www.powertechexposed.com/2015.05.26%20OGLALA%20SIOUX%20TRIBE’S%20PETITION%20FOR%20REVIEW_ML15146A500.pdf
In Situ Recovery is the preferred uranium mining term for In Situ Leach.
http://www.powertechexposed.com remains the best way to keep up to date with the Dewey Burdock case.
From the US National Park Service:
“Battle of the Little Bighorn
The Battle of the Little Bighorn was fought along the ridges, steep bluffs, and ravines of the Little Bighorn River, in south central Montana on June 25-26, 1876. The combatants were warriors of the Lakota Sioux, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes, battling men of the 7th Regiment of the U.S. Cavalry. The Battle of the Little Bighorn has come to symbolize the clash of two vastly dissimilar cultures: the buffalo/horse culture of the northern plains tribes, and the highly industrial/agricultural based culture of the U.S., which was advancing primarily from the east coast. This battle was not an isolated soldier versus warrior confrontation, but part of a much larger strategic campaign designed to force the capitulation of the nonreservation Lakota and Cheyenne.
In 1868, many Lakota leaders agreed to a treaty, known as the Fort Laramie Treaty that created a large reservation in the western half of present day South Dakota. They further agreed to give up their nomadic life which often brought them into conflict with other tribes in the region, with settlers, and with railroad surveys. Agreeing to the treaty meant accepting a more stationary life, and relying on government supplied subsidies. Lakota leaders such as Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse rejected the reservation system. Likewise many roving bands of hunters and warriors did not sign the 1868 treaty, and consequently, felt no obligation to conform to its restrictions, or to limit their hunting to the unceded hunting land assigned by the treaty. Their sporadic forays off the set aside lands brought them into conflict with settlers and enemy tribes outside the treaty boundaries.
Tension between the U.S. and the Lakota escalated in 1874, when Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer was ordered to make an exploration of the Black Hills inside the boundary of the Great Sioux Reservation. Custer was to map the area, locate a suitable site for a future military post, and to make note of the natural resources. During the expedition, professional geologists discovered deposits of gold. Word of the discovery of mineral wealth caused an invasion of miners and entrepreneurs to the Black Hills in direct violation of the treaty of 1868. The U.S. negotiated with the Lakota to purchase the Black Hills, but the offered price was rejected by the Lakota. The climax came in the winter of 1875, when the Commissioner of Indian Affairs issued an ultimatum requiring all Sioux to report to a reservation by January 31, 1876. The deadline came with virtually no response from the Indians, and matters were handed to the military.
General Philip Sheridan, commander of the Military Division of the Missouri, devised a strategy that committed several thousand troops to find and to engage the Lakota and Cheyenne, who now were considered “hostile”, with the goal of forcing their return to the Great Sioux Reservation. The campaign was set in motion in March, 1876, when the Montana column, a 450 man force of combined cavalry and infantry commanded by Colonel John Gibbon, marched out of Fort Ellis near Bozeman Montana. A second force, numbering about 1,000 cavalry and infantry and commanded by General George Crook, was launched during the last week of May, from Fort Fetterman in central Wyoming. In the middle of May, a third force, under the command of General Alfred Terry, marched from Fort Abraham Lincoln, Bismarck, Dakota Territory, with a command comprised of 879 men. The bulk of this force was the 7th Cavalry, commanded by Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer.
It was expected that any one of these three forces would be able to deal with the 800-1,500 warriors they likely were to encounter. The three commands of Gibbon, Crook, and Terry were not expected to launch a coordinated attack on a specific Indian village at a known location. Inadequate, slow, and often unpredictable communications hampered the army’s coordination of its expeditionary forces. Furthermore, it must be remembered that their nomadic hunting put the Sioux and their Cheyenne allies constantly on the move. No officer or scout could be certain how long a village might remain stationary, or which direction the tribe might choose to go in search of food, water, and grazing areas for their horses.
The tribes had come together for a variety of reasons. The well watered region of the Powder, Rosebud, Bighorn, and Yellowstone rivers was a productive hunting ground. The tribes regularly gathered in large numbers during the spring to celebrate their annual sun dance ceremony. The sun dance ceremony had occurred about two weeks earlier near present day Lame Deer, Montana. During the ceremony, Sitting Bull received a vision of soldiers falling upside down into his village. He prophesized there soon would be a great victory for his people.
On the morning of June 25, the camp was ripe with rumors about soldiers on the other side of the Wolf Mountains, 15 miles to the east, yet few people paid any attention. In the words of Low Dog, an Oglala Sioux, “I did not think anyone would come and attack us so strong as we were.”
On June 22, General Terry decided to detach Custer and his 7th Cavalry to make a wide flanking march and approach the Indians from the east and south. Custer was to act as the hammer, and prevent the Lakota and their Cheyenne allies from slipping away and scattering, a common fear expressed by government and military authorities. General Terry and Colonel Gibbon, with infantry and cavalry, would approach from the north to act as a blocking force or anvil in support of Custer’s far ranging movements toward the headwaters of the Tongue and Little Bighorn Rivers. The Indians, who were thought to be camped somewhere along the Little Bighorn River, “would be so completely enclosed as to make their escape virtually impossible”.
On the evening of June 24, Custer established a night camp twenty-five miles east of where the fateful battle would take place on June 25-26. The Crow and Arikara scouts were sent ahead, seeking actionable intelligence about the direction and location of the combining Lakota and Cheyenne. The returning scouts reported that the trail indicated the village turned west toward the Little Bighorn River and was encamped about twenty-five miles west of the June 24 camp. Custer ordered a night march that followed the route that the village took as it crossed to the Little Bighorn River valley. Early on the morning of June 25, the 7th Cavalry Regiment was positioned near the Wolf Mountains about twelve miles distant from the Lakota/Cheyenne encampment along the Little Bighorn River. Today, historians estimate the village numbered 8,000, with a warrior force of 1,500-1,800 men. Custer’s initial plan had been to conceal his regiment in the Wolf Mountains through June 25th, which would allow his Crow and Arikara scouts time to locate the Sioux and Cheyenne village. Custer then planned to make a night march, and launch an attack at dawn on June 26; however, the scouts reported the regiment’s presence had been detected by Lakota or Cheyenne warriors. Custer, judging the element of surprise to have been lost, feared the inhabitants would attack or scatter into the rugged landscape, causing the failure of the Army’s campaign. Custer ordered an immediate advance to engage the village and its warrior force.
At the Wolf Mountain location, Custer ordered a division of the regiment into four segments: the pack train with ammunition and supplies, a three company force (125) commanded by Captain Frederick Benteen, a three company force (140) commanded by Major Marcus Reno and a five company force (210) commanded by Custer. Benteen was ordered to march southwest, on a left oblique, with the objective of locating any Indians, “pitch into anything” he found, and send word to Custer. Custer and Reno’s advance placed them in proximity to the village, but still out of view. When it was reported that the village was scattering, Custer ordered Reno to lead his 140 man battalion, plus the Arikara scouts, and to “pitch into what was ahead” with the assurance that he would “be supported by the whole outfit”.
The Lakota and Cheyenne village lay in the broad river valley bottom, just west of the Little Bighorn River. As instructed by his commanding officer, Reno crossed the river about two miles south of the village and began advancing downstream toward its southern end. Though initially surprised, the warriors quickly rushed to fend off Reno’s assault. Reno halted his command, dismounted his troops and formed them into a skirmish line which began firing at the warriors who were advancing from the village. Mounted warriors pressed their attack against Reno’s skirmish line and soon endangered his left flank. Reno withdrew to a stand of timber beside the river, which offered better protection. Eventually, Reno ordered a second retreat, this time to the bluffs east of the river. The Sioux and Cheyenne, likening the pursuit of retreating troops to a buffalo hunt, rode down the troopers. Soldiers at the rear of Reno’s fleeing command incurred heavy casualties as warriors galloped alongside the fleeing troops and shot them at close range, or pulled them out of their saddles onto the ground.
Reno’s now shattered command recrossed the Little Bighorn River and struggled up steep bluffs to regroup atop high ground to the east of the valley fight. Benteen had found no evidence of Indians or their movement to the south, and had returned to the main column. He arrived on the bluffs in time to meet Reno’s demoralized survivors. A messenger from Custer previously had delivered a written communication to Benteen that stated, “Come on. Big Village. Be Quick. Bring Packs. P.S. Bring Packs.” An effort was made to locate Custer after heavy gunfire was heard downstream. Led by Captain Weir’s D Company, troops moved north in an attempt establish communication with Custer.
Assembling on a high promontory (Weir Point) a mile and a half north of Reno’s position, the troops could see clouds of dust and gun smoke covering the battlefield. Large numbers of warriors approaching from that direction forced the cavalry to withdraw to Reno Hill where the Indians held them under siege from the afternoon of June 25, until dusk on June 26. On the evening of June 26, the entire village began to move to the south.
The next day the combined forces of Terry and Gibbon arrived in the valley bottom where the village had been encamped. The badly battered and defeated remnant of the 7th Cavalry was now relieved. Scouting parties, advancing ahead of General Terry’s command, discovered the dead, naked, and mutilated bodies of Custer’s command on the ridges east of the river. Exactly what happened to Custer’s command never will be fully known. From Indian accounts, archeological finds, and positions of bodies, historians can piece together the Custer portion of the battle, although many answers remain elusive.
It is known that, after ordering Reno to charge the village, Custer rode northward along the bluffs until he reached a broad coulee known as Medicine Tail Coulee, a natural route leading down to the river and the village. Archeologial finds indicate some skirmishing occurred at Medicine Tail ford. For reasons not fully understood, the troops fell back and assembled on Calhoun Hill, a terrain feature on Battle Ridge. The warriors, after forcing Major Reno to retreat, now began to converge on Custer’s maneuvering command as it forged north along what, today, is called Custer or Battle Ridge.
Dismounting at the southern end of the ridge, companies C and L appear to have put up stiff resistance before being overwhelmed. Company I perished on the east side of the ridge in a large group, the survivors rushing toward the hill at the northwest end of the long ridge. Company E may have attempted to drive warriors from the deep ravines on the west side of the ridge, before being consumed in fire and smoke in one of the very ravines they were trying to clear. Company F may have tried to fire at warriors on the flats below the National Cemetery before being driven to the Last Stand Site.
About 40 to 50 men of the original 210 were cornered on the hill where the monument now stands. Hundreds of Lakota and Cheyenne warriors surrounded them. Toward the end of the fight, soldiers, some on foot, others on horseback, broke out in a desperate attempt to get away. All were pulled down and killed in a matter of minutes. The warriors quickly rushed to the top of the hill, cutting, clubbing, and stabbing the last of the wounded. Superior numbers and overwhelming firepower brought the Custer portion of the Battle of the Little Bighorn to a close.
The battle was a momentary victory for the Sioux and Cheyenne. General Phil Sheridan now had the leverage to put more troops in the field. Lakota Sioux hunting grounds were invaded by powerful Army expeditionary forces, determined to pacify the Northern Plains and to confine the Lakota and Cheyenne to reservations. Most of the declared “hostiles” had surrendered within one year of the fight, and the Black Hills were taken by the U.S. without compensation.
Did You Know?
From archeological evidence warriors who fought in the battle used about 45 different types of firearms, ranging from muzzle loaders, cap and ball to the advanced Henry and Winchester repeaters. It’s believed about 10% of the warriors had firearms, the majority fought with their traditional weapons.” http://www.nps.gov/libi/learn/historyculture/battle-of-the-little-bighorn.htm
The crazy thing is that the US government gave new immigrants from abroad land taken from the American Indians out west (to the east of the Mississippi most had to buy land), even as they are giving out uranium, gold and copper to foreign companies to this day! In an interview shortly before his death, Martin Luther King pointed out how so much land was given to new immigrants, whereas the US government failed to make good on its promises to freed slaves The US government continues to favor new migrants over those who have been there for longer. Thus, the American Indians are the poorest of all Americans. Blacks who arrived from the early 1600s to early 1800s are the second poorest. It would be interesting to know how the descendants of whites who fought in the American Revolution fare compared to newer arrivals. President Obama’s father was born in Kenya, and deserted his white American wife and son. He was raised by white midwestern maternal grandparents. So, only by marriage is he African American.