, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Anyone who knows about US academics knows that institutions are not supposed to keep their own Ph.D. students, as MIT-WHOI did Ken Buesseler. It is considered academic incest and when it happens, as with Ken Buesseler, eyebrows should be raised and questions asked. Ken Buesseler wrote his Ph.D. on testing for Plutonium at MIT-Woods Hole (WHOI). He works for WHOI. What seems to be his only and brief foray outside of WHOI was to the US Nuclear lab-bomb plant, Savannah River Site, to study (test for) plutonium there. He even studied plutonium at the Hanford site. His dissertation was about testing for plutonium in the North Atlantic from weapons fallout. Although we found it ages ago elsewhere, he pridefully and conveniently placed it on the WHOI web site too, for everyone to see. Pride cometh before a fall, they say. One can but hope.
Buesseler Diss title

In the late 80s-early 90s Buesseler was writing about radionuclides from Chernobyl in the Black Sea. He has also written about iron, which plutonium mimics. He hasn’t said much about plutonium at Fukushima – not since 2012 that we’ve found. Certainly no mention of plutonium on the Canadian coast in today’s news releases:
Fukushima disaster radiation detected off Canada’s coast: Trace amounts of Cesium-134 and Cesium-137 detected in samples collected off the coast of Ucluelet, a small town on Vancouver Island in British Columbiahttp://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/apr/07/fukushima-disaster-radiation-detected-off-canadas-coast

If you know anything about research, or even the Bible, you know seek and you will find, and the corollary: don’t seek and you won’t find. You don’t find something if you don’t look for it. In research, the answer is only as good as the question, unless the research is open-ended. Even with open-ended research you must pick and choose in some way.

So, when the levels of cesium are reported but no mention is made of plutonium, then that should raise eyebrows as well. This is more true with Buesseler whose expertise is testing for plutonium. Many researchers lack the money and expertise. Cesium mimics potassium in the body. Potassium is necessary for nerve transmission and heart function. Cesium great or small is not ok, even though the English speaking world is allowing 1,000 to 1,200 Bq/kg of Cesium in food (kg is 2.2 pounds; Bq is a radioactive emission per second). Japan only allows 100 Bq/kg. What is allowed as food in the US, Australia, and Canada would be nuclear waste in Japan. Note that Europe only allows 600 Bq/kg and only 100 Bq/kg if food is imported from Japan. The UK, however, has allowed 1,000 Bq/kg for livestock impacted by Chernobyl, which is not exported.

Cesium and plutonium get into your food and body; they are not the same as an x-ray which is over and done with. Buesseler is a sick, fancy liar, or delusional, on that alone. Assuming you have access to cesium free food (increasingly unlikely) cesium will stay in your body a couple of years; plutonium will stay a life-time. No cesium is safe; no plutonium is safe. These are fancy lies from Nuclear Industry-DOE point men like Buesseler. Maybe he believes his own lies, by now. Keep your head in radioactive sand, if you want. But, if you get cancer or suffer from infertility or have kids with genetic defects, you know where to look. The genetic defects from ionizing radiation have been known for almost 100 years; male infertility from radiation for over half a century; birth defects for as long. Radionuclides and x-rays causing cancer has been known for well over one hundred years.

A Researcher from a German Institute Found 212 Times More Plutonium from Fukushima than Nuclear Weapons Fallout in Japan
Trace analysis of plutonium by chemical separation and mass spectrometry – as an example of analytical chemistry, by Taeko Shinonaga, Helmholtz Zentrum München
See: “Trace analysis of plutonium by chemical separation and mass spectrometry – as an example of analytical chemistry, by Taeko Shinonaga, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health Institute of Radiation Protection, TP5-Workshop TransAqua, Kahrlsruhe, 25-27/Nov/2014http://transaqua.helmholtz-muenchen.de/fileadmin/TransAqua/PDF/Shinonaga.pdf (Unfortunately, we don’t know when the plutonium was sampled. 2013? 2014? Shortly after the Fukushima disaster started?)

Over time Ken Buesseler has suffered from allergies or nervous sniffing in his presentations. Nervous sniffing can be caused by telling lies. Lies can be of omission (omitting info) as well as commission. He specializes in distortion of information and omission of information. There is no “appears to” here. This is straight up fact and no way around his overt distortions. So, we don’t know if he has allergies or not, but we do know that he is acting as a nuclear con-man, and it’s probably not by ignorance, considering his background.

Here is at least some of Buesseler’s Plutonium research:
Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Sep 1;36(17):3690-9.
Sources and migration of plutonium in groundwater at the Savannah River site., Dai M, Kelley JM, Buesseler KO.
The isotopic composition, size distribution, and redox speciation of plutonium (Pu) in the groundwater in the vicinity of the F-area seepage basins at the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) were examined. A low 240Pu/239Pu ratio in the upstream control well signifies a Pu source other than global fallout and indicates reactor-produced Pu. Elevated 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios downstream from the seepage basins are due to the decay of transplutonium isotopes, mainly 244Cm to 240Pu, which were generated at the SRS. Evidence suggests that the migration of basin-released Pu isotopes is minor. Rather, it is the transplutonium isotopes that migrate preferentially downstream and in the process decay to yield progeny Pu isotopes. Size fractionation studies with cross-flow ultrafiltration show that <4% of the 239Pu or 240Pu is found in the colloidal fraction, a finding that is consistent with the higher Pu oxidation states observed in the SRS groundwater. The observation of a low abundance of colloid-associated Pu in SRS groundwater cannot be extrapolated to all sites, but is in contrast to the conclusions of prior groundwater Pu studies at the SRS and elsewhere. This work is unique in its application of a novel combination of sampling and processing protocols as well as its use of thermal ionization mass spectrometry for the detection of Pu isotopes. This allows quantification of the Pu source terms and better determination of the ambient Pu size and redox speciation representative of in situ conditions. PMID: 12322739 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
(Cm is curium. Cm 244 with a half life of about 18 years becomes plutonium 240 with a half life of 6,563 years. The 24 Pu listed below seems to be 240 Pu. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curium http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium-240)

Environ Sci Technol. 2009 Mar 1;43(5):1322-8.
Source-dependent and source-independent controls on plutonium oxidation state and colloid associations in groundwater.
Buesseler KO1, Kaplan DI, Dai M, Pike S.
Plutonium (Pu) was characterized for its isotopic composition, oxidation states, and association with colloids in groundwater samples near disposal basins in F-Area of the Savannah River Site and compared to similar samples collected six years earlier. Two sources of Pu were identified, the disposal basins, which contained a 24Pu/l39Pu isotopic signature consistent with weapons grade Pu, and 244Cm, a cocontaminant that is a progenitor radionuclide of 24Pu. 24Pu that originated primarily from 244Cm tended to be appreciably more oxidized (Pu(V/VI)), less associated with colloids (approximately 1 kDa – 0.2 microm), and more mobile than 239Pu, as suggested by our prior studies at this site. This is not evidence of isotope fractionation but rather "source-dependent" controls on 240Pu speciation which are processes that are not at equilibrium, i.e., processes that appear kinetically hindered. There were also "source-independent" controls on 239Pu speciation, which are those processes that follow thermodynamic equilibrium with their surroundings. For example, a groundwater pH increase in one well from 4.1 in 1998 to 6.1 in 2004 resulted in an order of magnitude decrease in groundwater 239Pu concentrations. Similarly, the fraction of 239Pu in the reduced Pu(III/IV) and colloidal forms increased systematically with decreases in redox condition in 2004 vs 1998. This research demonstrates the importance of source-dependent and source-independent controls on Pu speciation which would impact Pu mobility during changes in hydrological, chemical, or biological conditions on both seasonal and decadal time scales, and over short spatial scales. This implies more dynamic shifts in Pu speciation, colloids association, and transport in groundwater than commonly believed.
PMID: 19350898 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

J Contam Hydrol. 2005 Feb;76(3-4):167-89.
Plutonium in groundwater at the 100K-Area of the U.S. DOE Hanford Site. Dai M, Buesseler KO, Pike SM.
We examined the concentration, size distribution, redox state and isotopic composition of plutonium (Pu) in groundwater at the 100K-Area at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Total concentrations of Pu isotopes were extremely low (10(-4) to 10(-6) pCi/kg, approximately 10(4) to 10(6) atoms/kg) but measurable for the first time in the 100K-Area wells using mass spectrometric analyses that are much more sensitive than alpha spectroscopy methods used previously. Size fractionation data from two wells suggest that 7-29% of the Pu is associated with colloids, operationally defined here as particles between 1 kDa-0.2 microm in size. These colloids were collected using a 1 kDa cross-flow ultrafiltration (CFF) system developed specifically for groundwater actinide studies to include careful controls both in the field and during processing to ensure in situ geochemical conditions are maintained and size separations can be well characterized. Pu in this colloidal fraction was exclusively in the more reduced Pu(III/IV) form, consistent with the higher affinity of Pu in the lower oxidation states for particle surfaces. While the overall concentrations of Pu were low, the Pu isotopic composition suggests at least two local sources of groundwater Pu, namely, local Hanford reactor operations at the 100K-Area and spent nuclear fuel from the N-reactor, which was stored in concrete pools at this site. Differences between this site and the Savannah River Site (SRS) are noted, since groundwater Pu at the F-Area seepage basin at SRS has been found using these same methods, to be characterized by lower colloidal abundances and higher oxidation states. This difference is not directly attributable to groundwater redox potential or geochemical conditions, but rather the physical-chemical difference in Pu sources, which at SRS appear to be dominated downstream from the seepage basins by decay of 244Cm, resulting in more oxidized forms of 240Pu. There is no clear evidence for colloid facilitated transport of Pu in groundwater at the Hanford Site, since downstream wells have both an order of magnitude lower concentrations of Pu and a lower fractional colloidal distribution. PMID: 15683879 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

J Environ Radioact. 2001;53(1):9-25.
Size-fractionated plutonium isotopes in a coastal environment. Dai MH, Buesseler KO, Kelley JM, Andrews JE, Pike S, Wacker JF.
We have examined the distribution of individual Pu isotopes (239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu) in seawater from the Gulf of Maine (GOM). Samples were size-fractionated with a 1 kD cross-flow ultrafiltration (CFF) membrane. Subfractioned samples were radiochemically purified and Pu isotopes were analyzed using a three-stage thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS). To our knowledge, this is the first time that both size class and Pu isotopic data have been obtained for seawater samples. Within measurement uncertainties a single 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of 0.18 was found for all sample collection depths and sample size fractions. This signifies a current, single Pu source in GOM waters, namely global fallout, and suggests that no measurable isotopic fractionation occurred during CFF processing. The majority of Pu was found in the low molecular weight fraction (< 1 kD). Colloidal Pu varied from 8% of the total in surface waters to < 1% in the deepest (250 m) seawater sample. Evidence suggests that the vertical distribution of Pu in GOM is primarily controlled by conservative mixing processes. The high Pu fraction found in the low molecular size fraction implies that most of the Pu is in the non-particle-reactive oxidized fraction, and is consistent with the conservative Pu behavior. The activity levels are in agreement with other studies which show a slow decrease in Pu with time due to continued mixing and relatively slow particle removal. PMID: 11378930 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Nature. 1987 Oct 29-Nov 4;329(6142):825-8.
Chernobyl radionuclides in a Black Sea sediment trap. Buesseler KO, Livingston HD, Honjo S, Hay BJ, Manganini SJ, Degens E, Ittekkot V, Izdar E, Konuk T.
The Chernobyl nuclear power station accident released large quantities of vaporized radionuclides, and, to a lesser extent, mechanically released small (less than 1-10 micron) aerosol particles. The total release of radioactivity is estimated to be out of the order of 1-2 x 10(18) Bq (3-5 x 10(7) Ci) not allowing for releases of the xenon and krypton gases. The 137Cs releases of 3.8 x 10(16) Bq from Chernobyl can be compared to 1.3 x 10(18) Bq 137Cs released due to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Chernobyl-derived radionuclides can be used as transient tracers to study physical and biogeochemical processes. Initial measurements of fallout Chernobyl radionuclides from a time-series sediment trap at 1,071 m during June-September 1986 in the southern Black Sea are presented. The specific activities of 137Cs, 144Ce and 106Ru in the trap samples (0.5-2, 4-12 and 6-13 Bq g-1) are independent of the particle flux while their relative activities reflect their rates of scavenging in the order Ce greater than Ru greater than Cs. PMID: 3670387 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]


Plutonium oxidation states in the southwestern Black Sea: Evidence regarding the origin of the cold intermediate layer Sanchez, Arthur L.; Gastaud, Janine; Noshkin, Victor; Buesseler, Ken O.. 1991 Plutonium oxidation states in the southwestern Black Sea: Evidence regarding the origin of the cold intermediate layer. Deep Sea Research Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers, 38 (Supplement 2).
Water column profiles of reduced Pu (III + IV) and oxidized Pu (V + VI) species at two stations in the southwestern Black Sea reveal that oxidized Pu predominates even at the suboxic zone, between 50 and 100 m. Reduction of these oxidized species occurs at the base of the suboxic zone, where we noted a shift to the predominance of reduced Pu forms. At anoxic depths (below 150 m), we found only reduced Pu forms, at concentrations significantly less than the total Pu levels we found in the upper 150 m samples. Our data show that Pu oxidation states are useful in interpreting lateral advective processes that occur within the upper 150 m of the Black Sea water column. An additional interesting result of our measurements is that water at the cold intermediate layer (CIL) of the Black Sea is labeled with predominantly oxidized Pu. We believe this feature can be used to trace the origin of CIL water.

In 2012 on a video presentation:
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Science Made Public — Fukushima Radiation:
51:00 — Ken Buesseler, Woods Hole senior scientist: People have a hard time with radiation risk because we can’t taste it, we can’t smell it… we have no control over this accident.
5900 – Question: I’m wondering about the corium and whether anything you’ve detected in the water is coming form the core, the meltdown?
59:30– Buesseler: Great question… What I’m thinking of are things like plutonium uranium, the fuel itself… We’ve actually seen, I’d say a trace amount of plutonium, I’ve seen two talks on thatIt doesn’t come out as a gas, it’s in the ocean, probably because of all that cooling water they put on there. Hydrogen makes it very acidic… it dissolves some of the materials and bring that back into the ocean… We haven’t yet taken that into the seafood… [It] may have come out in the hot acidic water, that’s been — still to this day btw – they’re putting on 100s of tons of water a day to cool those reactors and only recovering about half of that water… They have to cool that thing for decades, for years certainly and that takes water and they’ve got leaks everywhere.
http://nuclear-news.net/2015/01/05/plutonium-from-fukushima-in-the-pacific-ocean/ What he’s saying about the hydrogen-acid appears really important. What he’s not explaining here is that radiation causes the radiolysis of water separating the hydrogen (H) and the Oxygen (OH ). In the context of nuclear reactors this leads to hydrogen migration into the pores of reactor pressure vessels, hydrogen gas formation, and embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels. However, with sea water for cooling at Fukushima, the chloride (Cl) in the sea salt (NaCl) would be contributing to/speeding up this process because chloride is a stronger oxidizer than oxygen. This is probably essentially the same as hydrochloric acid (HCl). “Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water. It is a highly corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrochloric_acid If you’ve taken chemistry lab, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid are the two that you had better not sniff. They are generally well labeled and the smoke coming off should serve as a warning! Even fresh water there will still be hydrogen formation from the radiolysis. Plutonium, uranium, cesium are all metals which are subject to corrosion. Cesium is more reactive even than sodium.

Related imp. but re Cesium: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es505064d