cancer, causes of cancer, causes of leukemia, childhood cancer, dangers of nuclear, embryo, fetus, ionizing radiation, leukemia, NRC, nuclear effluent, nuclear energy, nuclear power, nuclear reactors, pregnancy, radioactive carbon, radioactive hydrogen, radioactive water, tritium, USNRC
Another US NRC deadline is upon us for 24 March 2015: https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2014/11/20/2014-27519/radiation-protection The following article by Dr. Ian Fairlie should prove helpful for the question about embryo-fetal exposure to radiation, dose assessment, and more. Dr. Fairlie has a degree in radiation biology and his doctoral studies concerned the radiological hazards of nuclear fuel reprocessing.  His research was instrumental in shutting down Quebec’s nuclear power station. His 2014 article, related to the one below, is discussed here: http://www.ianfairlie.org/news/childhood-leukemias-near-nuclear-power-stations-new-article/ Highlight-Underline added. Original document here: http://www.ehjournal.net/content/8/1/43
Note that many nuclear reactors do “Batch releases” of radionuclides into the air, and/or water, multiple times per year and not only when the fuel is changed. That is, some reactors leak constantly and some hold back the leaks until some of the short-lived radionuclides have become less radioactive or non-radioactive. Then they release the remaining longer and long-lived radionuclides all at once as “effluent”. Dilution is actively encouraged by the US NRC. Dilution is meaningless, as the amount of radionuclides released is all that matters. It is a dilute and deceive scam, which merely sends the radiation downwind or downstream to be someone else’s problem.
“Carbon is the most important element to life. Without this element, life as we know it would not exist. …, carbon is the central element in compounds necessary for life. The Significance of Carbon A compound found mainly in living things is known as an organic compound. Organic compounds make up the cells and other structures of organisms and carry out life processes. Carbon is the main element in organic compounds, so carbon is essential to life on Earth.” http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Biology-Concepts/section/1.9/
“Tritium (/ˈtrɪtiəm/ or /ˈtrɪʃiəm/; symbol T or 3H, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The nucleus of tritium (sometimes called a triton) contains one proton and two neutrons, … decays into helium-3 by beta decay… and it releases 18.6 keV of energy in the process.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tritium Tritium binds with oxygen and forms tritiated water, that is radioactive water.
Carbon (C), hydrogen (H),and water (H2O) are the foundation of life. Conversion between gray and sievert (and by extension mGy and mSv): “For X-rays and gamma rays the gray is numerically the same value when expressed as the sievert (Sv), but for alpha particles one gray is equivalent to twenty sieverts because of the radiation weighting factor that is applied.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gray_(unit)
Radiation Exposure Evaluation. “Protection” is somewhat of a misnomer. Graphic by Doug Sim, CC-BY-SA-3.0 (Emphasis added. Original from here: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Graphical_relationship_of_SI_radiation_dose_units.svg) Related: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dose_quantities_and_units.png
Abstract of one document mentioned in the Fairlie text: “Genomic damage in children accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation: a review of the literature. Fucic A, Brunborg G, Lasan R, Jezek D, Knudsen LE, Merlo DF. Mutat Res. 2008 Jan-Feb;658(1-2):111-23. Epub 2007 Nov 12. Abstract During the last decade, our knowledge of the mechanisms by which children respond to exposures to physical and chemical agents present in the environment, has significantly increased. Results of recent projects and programmes focused on children’s health underline a specific vulnerability of children to environmental genotoxicants. Environmental research on children predominantly investigates the health effects of air pollution while effects from radiation exposure deserve more attention. The main sources of knowledge on genome damage of children exposed to radiation are studies performed after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986. The present review presents and discusses data collected from papers analyzing genome damage in children environmentally exposed to ionizing radiation. Overall, the evidence from the studies conducted following the Chernobyl accident, nuclear tests, environmental radiation pollution and indoor accidental contamination reveals consistently increased chromosome aberration and micronuclei frequency in exposed than in referent children. Future research in this area should be focused on studies providing information on: (a) effects on children caused by low doses of radiation; (b) effects on children from combined exposure to low doses of radiation and chemical agents from food, water and air; and (c) specific effects from exposure during early childhood (radioisotopes from water, radon in homes). Special consideration should also be given to a possible impact of a radiochemical environment to the development of an adaptive response for genomic damage. Interactive databases should be developed to provide integration of cytogenetic data, childhood cancer registry data and information on environmental contamination. The overall aim is to introduce timely and efficient preventive measures, by means of a better knowledge of the early and delayed health effects in children resulting from radiation exposure.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18155954 Entire doc here: http://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/11699414.pdf
 From Dr. Fairlie’s web site: Dr. Fairlie has a degree in radiation biology from Bart’s Hospital in London and his doctoral studies at Imperial College in London and (briefly) Princeton University in the US concerned the radiological hazards of nuclear fuel reprocessing. He formerly worked as a civil servant on the regulation of radiation risks from nuclear power stations. From 2000 to 2004, he was head of the Secretariat of the UK Government’s CERRIE Committee on internal radiation risks http://www.ianfairlie.org/about-ian-fairlie/ Publications: http://www.ianfairlie.org/publications/ A summary of his new 2014 peer reviewed article: http://www.ianfairlie.org/news/childhood-leukemias-near-nuclear-power-stations-new-article/