Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Another large Japanese earthquake, between 6.7 and 6.9 magnitude, and a tsunami warning. One sure thing, besides death and taxes, is large earthquakes in Japan, proving that those who want nuclear power in Japan are either dim-witted or members of a death cult (as some have actually alleged!).
Japan 6.7 earthquake, 16 Feb, Nuclear reactor sites from Climate Viewer 3D KML Files by Jim Lee,  CC-BY-NC-SA-4.0; USGS earthquake data
Whoops, another earthquake: M5.8
Japan, 16-17 Feb. 2015, 6.7, 5.8 M earthquakes; Nuclear reactor sites from Climate Viewer 3D KML Files by Jim Lee, licensed CC-BY-NC-SA-4.0, USGS earthquake data
Nuclear sites from Climate Viewer 3D KML Files by Jim Lee, CC-BY-NC-SA-4.0 [1]

Japanese nuclear power stations have multiple nuclear reactors, further increasing the dangers. Below is discussion of the nuclear power stations found on the top map, with the exception of Fukushima Daichi, followed by the USGS earthquake page and the Pacific Tsunami Warning emitted by the US National Weather Service-NOAA, subsequent to the earthquake which they estimated at M6.9.

Fukushima Daini is Fukushima Daichi’s cousin down the road, for those who, like us, either missed it or forgot:
The Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant (福島第二原子力発電所 Fukushima Daini ( pronunciation) Genshiryoku Hatsudensho?, Fukushima II NPP, 2F), is a nuclear power plant located on a 150 ha (370-acre) site[1] in the town of Naraha and Tomioka in the Futaba District of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) runs the plant.

After the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, the four reactors at Fukushima II automatically shut down.[2]

Japan’s worst nuclear accident occurred” [and is still occuring] “at TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (a 11.5 km (7.1 mi) boundary to boundary road journey to the north[3]) after the same March 11 earthquake

2011 earthquake and tsunami

On March 11, 2011, a 9-meter-high tsunami struck the No. 2 plant, while the No. 1 plant was hit by a 13-meter-high tsunami. The tsunami caused the No. 2 plant’s seawater pumps, used to cool reactors, to fail. Of the plant’s four reactors, three were in danger of meltdown. One external high-voltage power line still functioned, allowing plant staff in the central control room to monitor data on internal reactor temperatures and water levels. 2,000 employees of the No. 2 plant worked to stabilize the reactors. Some employees connected 200-meter sections of cable, each weighing more than a ton, over a distance of 9 kilometres. It is pointed out only 40 employees would have been at the plant if the earthquake had occurred in the evening or on a weekend. According to the head of the plant, the plant was near meltdown.[11]

The March 11, 2011 Tōhoku earthquake resulted in maximum horizontal ground accelerations of 0.21 g (2.10 m/s2) to 0.28 (2.77 m/s2) at the plant site, which is well below the design basis.[6][12] All four units were automatically shut down immediately after the earthquake, according to Nuclear Engineering International,[2] and the diesel engines were started to power the reactor cooling.[13] TEPCO estimated that the tsunami that followed the earthquake and inundated the plant was 14 meters high which is more than twice the designed height.[6] This flooded the pump rooms used for the essential service water system transferring heat to the sea, the ultimate heat sink of the reactors.[13] In unit 3, one seawater pump remained operational. The steam powered reactor core isolation cooling system (RCIC) in all 4 units was activated and ran as needed to maintain water level. At the same time, operators utilized the safety relief valve systems to keep the reactor pressures from getting too high by dumping the heat to the suppression pools.[13] In unit 3, the residual heat removal system (RHR) was started to cool the suppression pool and later brought the reactor to cold shutdown on March 12, but in units 1, 2, and 4 heat removal was unavailable, so the suppression pools began heating up and on March 12, the water temperature in the pools of units 1, 2, and 4 topped 100 °C between 05:30 and 06:10 JST,[14][15][16] removing the ability to remove pressure from the reactor and drywell.[13] Also, operators had to prepare an alternate injection line for each unit, as the RCIC can run indefinitely only while there is sufficient pressure and steam in the reactor to drive its turbine; once reactor pressure drops below a certain level, the RCIC shuts down automatically. Operators prepared for this and set up an alternate injection line using a non-emergency system known as the Makeup Water Condensate System to maintain water level which was an accident mitigation method TEPCO put in place at all its nuclear plants. The system was started and stopped in all 4 units, including unit 3, as needed to maintain the water level. The RCICs in each unit later shut down due to low reactor pressure. Operators had to also use the MUWC and the makeup water purification and filtering (MUPF) system to try to cool the suppression pool and drywell in addition to the reactor to prevent the drywell pressure from getting too high. Water injection into unit 4 was later switched from the MUWC to the High Pressure Core Spray (HPCS) system, part of the Emergency Core Cooling System. While the water level was maintained in the three units using emergency water injection, pressures in the containment vessel continued to rise and the operators prepared to vent the containments making restoration of heat removal urgent. Unit 1 was prioritized as it had the highest drywell pressure.[17]….http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fukushima_Daini_Nuclear_Power_Plant

Higashidōri Power Station on the Waterfront
Higashidori Nuclear Power Station Japan
The Higashidōri Nuclear Power Plant (東通原子力発電所 Higashidōri genshiryoku hatsudensho?, Higashidōri NPP) is a nuclear power plant located in the town of Higashidōri in eastern Aomori Prefecture, on the Shimokita Peninsula, facing the Pacific Ocean. It is unique in Japan in that at this four-unit site, two units are run by one company, the Tōhoku Electric Power Company and two units are run by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. The reactors are all of Toshiba design….

Earthquake susceptibility

On 20 December 2012 a panel of the Japanese Nuclear Regulatory Authority decided that two geologic faults under the nuclear plant were geological active: one fault called F-3 running vertically through the southern part of the plant’s grounds close by the reactor no. 1 and another fault called F-9, that is running parallel with F-3 were probably active.

Although Tohoku Electric Power claimed that the deformations inside the geological layers were the result of the swelling of clay minerals after they were exposed to water, Kunihiko Shimazaki, commissioner of the Nuclear Regulation Authority and head of the panel, said at the meeting, that any argument that the faults were not active, was totally unacceptable.[1][2]

In the application for permission to construct the No. 1 reactor at the Higashidori plant in 1996, Tohoku Electric Power Co. reported that there would be no active faults under the plant’s premises. In another report submitted to the government in 2008 in response to the 2006 revision to the government’s seismic-resistance design screening guidelines, the compagny asserted “There are no active faults in the neighborhood within 5 kilometers (from the Higashidori plant).” According to Shimazaki, chairman of the team of experts, the old sketches (of layers studied by Tohoku Electric) lacked credibility.[3]

On 18 February 2012 the NRA-panel of experts presented their draft report on the earthquake fault complex at the premises of the nuclear reactor site. Their conclusions:

two faults, named “F-3” and “F-9,” did produce several strike-slip thrusts within the past 110,000 years or so
the activity from the eight other F-type faults within the nuclear plant were “linked systematically.”
an evaluation of the “F-1”-fault, that runs under the water-intake facility of the nuclear power plant was needed, because geological changes might have occurred in a period 120.000 to 130.000 years ago.
These conclusions could cause an extra examination of the seismic resistance of the reactor buildings and re-enforcing them. On 14 February 2013 Tohoku Electric Power Co. made a request to the government to raise the electric power rates, while the company thought that the No. 1 reactor could be restarted around July 2015. At the presentation of the report, Tohoku Electric Power opposed these findings, and argued that water influx had caused the swelling of the geological layers, and it would start their own investigations the next day. The NRA-panel saw no grounds for this reasoning, they did not want to wait and planned to finalize the report with other experts.[4]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higashidōri_Nuclear_Power_Plant

The Tomari Nuclear Power Plant (泊発電所 Tomari hatsudensho?, Tomari NPP) is the only nuclear power plant in Hokkaidō, Japan. It is located in the town of Tomari in the Furuu District and is managed by the Hokkaido Electric Power Company.[1] All of the reactors are Mitsubishi designs. The plant site totals 1,350,000 m2 (334 acres), with an additional 70,000 m2 of reclaimed land….
Seismic research in 2011 showed that the March 11th quake was caused by the simultaneous movement of multiple active faults at the coast of the Pacific Ocean in northern Japan and that much bigger earthquakes could be triggered than the plants were built to withstand. In February, the Tokai Daini Plant in Ibaraki Prefecture and the Tomari power facility in Hokkaido, said that they could not rule out the possibility that the plants were vulnerable. Other nuclear power stations declared that the active faults near their nuclear plants would not move at the same time, and even if it did happen, the impact would be limited. NISA is to look into the evaluation of active faults done by the plants.[16][17]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomari_Nuclear_Power_Plant

Although everyone is told that everything was fine at the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant, after the 11 March 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, this appears not to have been completely true. Read more about Onagawa here: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2015/01/26/japan-more-earthquake-nuclear-reactor-risk-reminders/

Huge MOX run reactor under construction:
The Ōma Nuclear Power Plant (大間原子力発電所 Ōma genshiryoku hatsudensho?) is a future nuclear plant in Ōma, Aomori currently undergoing preliminary ground work that will be operated by the Electric Power Development Company. The reactor will be unique in that it will be capable of using a 100% MOX fuel core, as requested by the 1995 decision by the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission.

In 2008, Electric Power announced a 2.5-year delay to allow for additional work to make the plant resistant to a strong earthquake, making the operation start date in November 2014.[1][2]

Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster of March 2011 construction at Oma was suspended for 18 months. Work was resumed on October 2012. On March 2013, the main reactor building was at its full height.[3]

Reactors on site
Unit 1
Type: ABWR
Begin of operation: November 2014 (planned)
Electric Output: 1,383 MW
Fuel: MOX fuel or UO 2 fuel
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ōma_Nuclear_Power_Plant (Emphasis added to Wiki articles).

Ring of Fire people! Once again, we don’t mean the Johnny Cash Song!: http://youtu.be/FhE6Izmkpx4 We mean the Pacific Ring of Fire where most earthquakes occur!

Japan is in the Ring of Fire, the most seismically and volcanically active zone in the world.
"This dynamic earth: the story of plate tectonics" 1996, Kious, W. Jacquelyne; Tilling, Robert I., USGS Unnumbered Series General Interest PublicationThe ‘Ring of Fire’, also called the Circum-Pacific belt, is the zone of earthquakes surrounding the Pacific Ocean- about 90% of the world’s earthquakes occur there. The next most seismic region (5-6% of earthquakes) is the Alpide belt (extends from Mediterranean region, eastward through Turkey, Iran, and northern India.” (“This dynamic earth: the story of plate tectonics” 1996, Kious, W. Jacquelyne; Tilling, Robert I., USGS Unnumbered Series General Interest Publication) http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/7000097
See also: http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/tectonics.html
USGS recent earthquakes 17 Feb. 2015 http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/?source=sitenav
16 Feb. 2015 Tsunami warning NWS p. 1
16 Feb. 2015 Tsunami warning NWS p. 2 http://www.tsunami.gov/product.php?id=TIBPAC.20150216.2312.001

[1] Climate Viewer 3D KML Files by Jim Lee are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Based on: http://climateviewer.com/3D/ and http://climateviewer.com/mobile/ (Jim Lee files based on work of Declan Butler) Nuclear sites export from Climate Viewer by Jim Lee; USGS star exported from USGS; data from USGS added by Mining Awareness. USGS doesn’t put the data on the map, only the star.

More info: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/usb000tpvj#impact_pager