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Some rather pompous people have suggested that Scotland can’t make it on its own. To say such a thing reflects a total ignorance of Scotland and its history. One need only look at the long list of innovations, provided at the bottom of this post, to see that few in the modern world can do without them, to see that Scotland can very well make it on its own. Telephone, wireless or not? A Scotsman. MRIs, Ultrasounds, EKG, Scots. Penicillin, a Scottish discovery, was and still is life-saving. Insulin? A Scots’ invention that allows those with diabetes a normal life. The basis for the refrigerator? Scottish. The intellectual foundations of the dangers of aging nuclear power plants and the dangers of nuclear waste storage, especially underground, come from a Scotsman. The first building run by wind power only? By a Scotsman. The long list of Scottish innovations, technology and discoveries finds its roots in a strong tradition of literacy, books, education, and ‘common sense”.

Of course, ignorance of Scotland and its history should surprise no one considering that the House of Lords has a Minister of Energy and Climate Change whose claim to fame appears to be a failed hosiery shop on High Street, which she opened at age 19. Furthermore, she was not even born in the UK and has no ethnic ties to it. It is certain that she would never be allowed this high ranking position in her own country, with no education. Why in the UK? This “Baroness Verma”, who appears to lack any qualifications in the matter, having started a hosiery shop at age 19, runs around promoting nuclear energy and “scrutinises”, to use the words of the NDA regarding her July visit to Dounreay, some of the most dangerous nuclear facilities in the world -Dounreay, and Sellafield. We still can’t figure out what her business of “supplying agency care workers” is, but it seems a conflict of interest. If it’s to do with home health care, then she would benefit from those made ill by the nuclear industry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandip_Verma,_Baroness_Verma

In stark contrast, Scotland’s successes in innovation have been rooted in a long tradition of literacy, books, and education. Prior to the UK, “By the 17th century, Scotland had five universities, compared with England’s two“, even though the population was smaller. Furthermore, the Scottish Enlightenment was characterized by the “rejection of any authority that could not be justified by reason” No reason can justify an uneducated, incompetent, person, with no real ties to Britain, running around the UK promoting nuclear or inspecting its dangerous nuclear facilities. It’s absolutely outrageous. The Institution of the UK House of Lords is an increasingly outrageous joke. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_Enlightenment http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_Common_Sense_Realism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Lords

Having an elected parliament is a very good reason for Scotland to leave the UK. As an independent country, Scotland, along with Ireland and Norway, can help protect England and Wales from Westminster’s silly, incompetent, rulers. Ireland, for instance, was able to take the UK to international court over their MOX project, whereas countries within the UK apparently could not.

Furthermore, if Scotland regains its independence, rather than investing in a nuclear arsenal and nuclear submarines, which poison Scotland’s air and water, and are unwanted by a majority, Scotland can invest in education and in innovation (e.g. business incubators). There is more than one tiny country with money to invest in Scottish innovation. Innovation is more and more important to the survival of us all.

William John Macquorn Rankine
As far as relevance to this blog goes, we must choose William John Macquorn Rankine – for simply looking at his work, we can see the educated foundations of why the Scots want no nuclear, and why they understand the dangers of burying higher level nuclear wastes under ground. He did early studies on material fatigue, especially stress concentration. Material fatigue, exacerbated by neutron bombardment, is why nuclear reactors get even more dangerous with age. Properties of steam, gases and vapours, the behaviour of shock waves, material fatigue, along with other aspects of his research, relate back to the dangers of storing nuclear waste, as does his theories-research on lateral earth pressure, soil mechanics and retaining walls. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_John_Macquorn_Rankine

Blyth's "windmill" at his cottage in Marykirk in 1891
Blyth’s “windmill” at his cottage in Marykirk in 1891
We must also point to a Scottish engineer who was a pioneer in wind energy and whose holiday home is the first known structure with electricity generated by wind:
Professor James Blyth MA, LLD, FRSE (4 April 1839 – 15 May 1906), was a Scottish electrical engineer and academic at Anderson’s College, now the University of Strathclyde, in Glasgow. He was a pioneer in the field of electricity generation through wind power and his wind turbine, which was used to light his holiday home in Marykirk, was the world’s first-known structure by which electricity was generated from wind power. Blyth patented his design and later developed an improved model which served as an emergency power source at Montrose Lunatic Asylum, Infirmary & Dispensary for the next 30 years.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Blyth_(engineer)

Solar Stirling engine — solar power in the Mojave Desert, San Bernardino County, California US Gov
Solar Stirling engine, US Gov image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_Powered_Stirling_Engines

As far as culture, health and hygiene innovation goes, we must point to Skara Brae, Orkney, Scotland: 3180 BCE-2500 BCE – Thousands of years before the mythological founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus, Skara Brae, in the north of Scotland, had plumbing. Skara Brae is unfortunately dangerously close to Dounreay nuclear facility (approximately 30 km). Skara Brae “consists of eight clustered houses, and was occupied from roughly 3180 BCE–2500 BCE… Older than Stonehenge and the Great Pyramids… A sophisticated drainage system was even incorporated into the village’s design, one that included a primitive form of toilet in each dwelling….The dwellings contain a number of stone-built pieces of furniture, including cupboards, dressers, seats, and storage boxes. Each dwelling was entered through a low doorway that had a stone slab door that could be closed ‘by a bar that slid in bar-holes cut in the stone door jambs.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skara_Brae

Another important innovation for health: “In 1748 … Cullen invented the basis for modern refrigeration, although is not credited with a usable application. In 1751 he was appointed Professor of the Practice of Medicine, although he continued to lecture on chemistry.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Cullen

And, “A crucial advance in plumbing, was the S-trap, invented by Alexander Cummings in 1775, and still in use today. This device uses the standing water to seal the outlet of the bowl, preventing the escape of foul air from the sewer. His design had a sliding valve in the bowl outlet above the trap.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flush_toilet

Watt Beam Engine model Glasgow museum

Here is the list. You will never think of Scotland the same, after reading it:
Scottish inventions and discoveries
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

“Even before the Industrial Revolution, Scots have been at the forefront of innovation and discovery across a wide range of spheres. Some of the most significant products of Scottish ingenuity include James Watt’s steam engine, improving on that of Thomas Newcomen,[1] the bicycle,[2] macadamisation (not to be confused with tarmac or tarmacadam[3]), the telephone invented by Alexander Graham Bell,[4] John Logie Baird’s invention of television,[5][6] Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin,[7] and the discoveries of electromagnetics, radar,[8] and insulin.[9]”
“the most significant event of the 19th century will be judged as Maxwell’s discovery of the laws of electrodynamics’
—Richard Feynman, Part of a series on the, Culture of Scotland”

“Scottish inventions and discoveries are objects, processes or techniques either partially or entirely invented or discovered by a person born in or descended from Scotland. In some cases, an invention’s Scottishness is determined by the fact that it came into existence in Scotland (e.g., animal cloning), by non-Scots working in the country. Often, things that are discovered for the first time are also called ‘inventions’ and in many cases there is no clear line between the two.”

“The following is a list of inventions or discoveries that are in some way Scottish.”

Road transport innovations

Macadamised roads (the basis for, but not specifically, tarmac): John Loudon McAdam (1756–1836)[3]
The pedal bicycle: Attributed to both Kirkpatrick Macmillan (1813–1878)[2] and Thomas McCall (1834–1904)
The pneumatic tyre: Robert William Thomson and John Boyd Dunlop (1822–1873) [10]
The overhead valve engine: David Dunbar Buick (1854–1929) [11]

Civil engineering innovations

Tubular steel: Sir William Fairbairn (1789–1874)[12]
The Falkirk wheel: Initial designs by Nicoll Russell Studios, Architects and engineers Binnie Black and Veatch (Opened 2002) [13]
The patent slip for docking vessels: Thomas Morton (1781–1832) [14][15]
The Drummond Light: Thomas Drummond (1797–1840) [16]
Canal design: Thomas Telford (1757–1834) [17]
Dock design improvements: John Rennie (1761–1821) [18]
Crane design improvements: James Bremner (1784–1856) [19]

Aviation innovations

Aircraft design: Frank Barnwell (1910) Establishing the fundamentals of aircraft design at the University of Glasgow.[20]

Power innovations

Condensing steam engine improvements: James Watt (1736–1819)[1]
Thermodynamic cycle: William John Macquorn Rankine (1820–1872)[21]
Coal-gas lighting: William Murdoch (1754–1839) [22]
The Stirling heat engine: Rev. Robert Stirling (1790–1878) [23]
Carbon brushes for dynamos: George Forbes (1849–1936) [24]
The Clerk cycle gas engine: Sir Dugald Clerk (1854–1932) [25]
The wave-powered electricity generator: by South African Engineer Stephen Salter in 1977 [26]
The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (“red sea snake” wave energy device): Richard Yemm, 1998 [27]

Shipbuilding innovations

Europe’s first passenger steamboat: Henry Bell (1767–1830) [28]
The first iron–hulled steamship: Sir William Fairbairn (1789–1874) [29]
The first practical screw propeller: Robert Wilson (1803–1882)
Marine engine innovations: James Howden (1832–1913)[30]
John Elder & Charles Randolph (Marine Compound expansion engine)[30]

Military innovations
Lieutenant-General Sir David Henderson two areas:
Field intelligence. Argued for the establishment of the Intelligence Corps. Wrote Field Intelligence: Its Principles and Practice (1904) and Reconnaissance (1907) on the tactical intelligence of modern warfare during World War I.[31]
United States Navy: Created largely by John Paul Jones, who was born in Kirkcudbrightshire.
Special forces: Founded by Sir David Stirling, the SAS was created in World War II in the North Africa campaign to go behind enemy lines to destroy and disrupt the enemy. Since then it as been regarded as the most famous and influential special forces that has inspired other countries to form their own special forces too.

Heavy industry innovations

Coal mining extraction in the sea on an artificial island by Sir George Bruce of Carnock (1575). Regarded as one of the industrial wonders of the late medieval period.[32]
Making cast steel from wrought iron: David Mushet (1772–1847) [33]
Wrought iron sash bars for glass houses: John C. Loudon (1783–1865) [34]
The hot blast oven: James Beaumont Neilson (1792–1865) [35]
The steam hammer: James Nasmyth (1808–1890) [36]
Wire rope: Robert Stirling Newall (1812–1889) [37]
Steam engine improvements: William Mcnaught (1831–1881) [38]
The Fairlie, a narrow gauge, double-bogie railway engine: Robert Francis Fairlie (1831–1885)[39]
Cordite – Sir James Dewar, Sir Frederick Abel (1889) [40]

Agricultural innovations

Threshing machine improvements: James Meikle (c.1690-c.1780) & Andrew Meikle (1719–1811) [41]
Hollow pipe drainage: Sir Hew Dalrymple, Lord Drummore (1700–1753) [42]
The Scotch plough: James Anderson of Hermiston (1739–1808) [43]
Deanstonisation soil-drainage system: James Smith (1789–1850) [44]
The mechanical reaping machine: Rev. Patrick Bell (1799–1869) [45]
The Fresno scraper: James Porteous (1848–1922) [46]
The Tuley tree shelter: Graham Tuley in 1979 [47]

Communication innovations

Print stereotyping: William Ged (1690–1749) [48]
The British Broadcasting Corporation BBC: John Reith, 1st Baron Reith (1922) its founder, first general manager and Director-general of the British Broadcasting Corporation[49]
Roller printing: Thomas Bell (patented 1783) [50]
The adhesive postage stamp and the postmark: James Chalmers (1782–1853) [51]
Universal Standard Time: Sir Sandford Fleming (1827–1915) [52]
Light signalling between ships: Admiral Philip H. Colomb (1831–1899) [53]
The telephone: Alexander Graham Bell (1847–1922)[4]
The teleprinter: Frederick G. Creed (1871–1957) [54]
The first working television, and colour television; John Logie Baird (1888–1946)[5][6]
Radar:A significant contributor to Radar Robert Watson-Watt (1892–1973)Alongside Englishman Henry Tizard among others[8]
The underlying principles of Radio – James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) [55]
The automated teller machine and Personal Identification Number system – James Goodfellow (born 1937) [56]
The Waverley pen nib innovations thereof: Duncan Cameron (1850) The popular “Waverley” was unique in design with a narrow waist and an upturned tip designed to made the ink flow more smoothly on the paper.[57]

Publishing firsts

The first edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1768–81) [58]
The first English textbook on surgery(1597) [59]
The first modern pharmacopaedia, William Cullen (1776). The book became ‘Europe’s principal text on the classification and treatment of disease’. His ideas survive in the terms nervous energy and neuroses (a word that Cullen coined).[60]
The first postcards and picture postcards in the UK [61]
The first eBook from a UK administration (March 2012). Scottish Government publishes ‘Your Scotland, Your Referendum’.[62]
The educational foundation of Ophthalmology: Stewart Duke-Elder in his ground breaking work including ‘Textbook of Ophthalmology and fifteen volumes of System of Ophthalmology’[63]
Culture and the Arts[edit]
Scottish National Portrait Gallery, designed by Sir Robert Rowand Anderson (1889): the world’s first purpose-built portrait gallery.[64]

Fictional characters

Sherlock Holmes, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Peter Pan, by J.M. Barrie, born in Kirriemuir, Angus
Long John Silver and The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, by Robert Louis Stevenson
John Bull: by John Arbuthnot although seen as a national personification of the United Kingdom in general, and England in particular,[65] the character of John Bull was invented by Arbuthnot in 1712[66]

Scientific innovations

Logarithms: John Napier (1550–1617)[67]
Modern Economics founded by Adam Smith (1776) ‘The father of modern economics’ [68] with the publication of The Wealth of Nations.[69][70]
Modern Sociology: Adam Ferguson (1767) ‘The Father of Modern Sociology’ with his work An Essay on the History of Civil Society[71]
Hypnotism: James Braid (1795–1860) the Father of Hypnotherapy[72]
Tropical medicine: Sir Patrick Manson known as the father of Tropical Medicine[73]
Modern Geology: James Hutton ‘The Founder of Modern Geology’ [74][75][76]
The theory of Uniformitarianism: James Hutton (1788): a fundamental principle of Geology the features of the geologic time takes millions of years.[77]
The theory of electromagnetism: James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) [78]
The discovery of the Composition of Saturn’s Rings James Clerk Maxwell (1859): determined the rings of Saturn were composed of numerous small particles, all independently orbiting the planet. At the time it was generally thought the rings were solid. The Maxwell Ringlet and Maxwell Gap were named in his honor.[79]
The Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution by James Clerk Maxwell (1860): the basis of the kinetic theory of gases, that speeds of molecules in a gas will change at different temperatures. The original theory first hypothesised by Maxwell and confirmed later in conjunction with Ludwig Boltzmann.[80]
Popularising the decimal point: John Napier (1550–1617)[81]
The first theory of the Higgs boson by Anglo-Scot[82] Peter Higgs particle-physics theorist at the University of Edinburgh (1964) [83]
The Gregorian telescope: James Gregory (1638–1675) [84]
The discovery of Proxima Centauri, the closest known star to the Sun, by Robert Innes (1861–1933) [85]
One of the earliest measurements of distance to the Alpha Centauri star system, the closest such system outside of the Solar System, by Thomas Henderson (1798–1844) [86]
The discovery of Centaurus A, a well–known starburst galaxy in the constellation of Centaurus, by James Dunlop (1793–1848) [87]
The discovery of the Horsehead Nebula in the constellation of Orion, by Williamina Fleming (1857–1911) [88]
The world’s first oil refinery and a process of extracting paraffin from coal laying the foundations for the modern oil industry: James Young (1811–1883)[89]
The identification of the minerals yttrialite, thorogummite, aguilarite and nivenite: by William Niven (1889) [90]
The concept of latent heat: Joseph Black (1728–1799) [91]
Discovering the properties of Carbon dioxide: Joseph Black (1728–1799)
The concept of Heat capacity: Joseph Black (1728–1799)
The pyroscope, atmometer and aethrioscope scientific instruments: Sir John Leslie (1766–1832) [92]
Identifying the nucleus in living cells: Robert Brown (1773–1858) [93]
Incandescent light bulb: James Bowman Lindsay (1799-1862)[94]
Colloid chemistry: Thomas Graham (1805–1869) [95]
The kelvin SI unit of temperature: William Thomson, Lord Kelvin (1824–1907) [96]
Devising the diagramatic system of representing chemical bonds: Alexander Crum Brown (1838–1922) [97]
Criminal fingerprinting: Henry Faulds (1843–1930) [98]
[Discovered] The noble gases: Sir William Ramsay (1852–1916) [99]
The cloud chamber recording of atoms: Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1869–1959) [100][101]
The discovery of the Wave of Translation, leading to the modern general theory of solitons by John Scott Russell (1808-1882) [102]
Statistical graphics: William Playfair founder of the first statistical line charts, bar charts, and pie charts in (1786) and (1801) known as a scientific ‘milestone’ in statistical graphs and data visualization[103][104]
The Arithmetic mean density of the Earth: Nevil Maskelyne conducted the Schiehallion experiment conducted at the Scottish mountain of Schiehallion, Perthshire 1774[105]
The first isolation of methylated sugars, trimethyl and tetramethyl glucose: James Irvine[106][107]
Discovery of the Japp–Klingemann reaction: to synthesize hydrazones from β-keto-acids (or β-keto-esters) and aryl diazonium salts 1887[108]
Pioneering work on nutrition and poverty: John Boyd Orr (1880–1971) [109]
Ferrocene synthetic substances: Peter Ludwig Pauson in 1955 [110]
The first cloned mammal (Dolly the Sheep): Was conducted in The Roslin Institute research centre in 1996 [111]
The seismometer innovations thereof: James David Forbes [112]
Metaflex fabric innovations thereof: University of St. Andrews (2010) application of the first manufacturing fabrics that manipulate light in bending it around a subject. Before this such light manipulating atoms were fixed on flat hard surfaces. The team at St Andrews are the first to develop the concept to fabric.[113]
Tractor beam innovations thereof: St. Andrews University (2013) the world’s first to succeed in creating a functioning Tractor beam that pulls objects on a microscopic level[114][115]
Macaulayite: Dr. Jeff Wilson of the Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen.[116]
Dscovery of Catacol whitebeam by Scottish Natural Heritage and the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (1990s): a rare tree endemic and unique to the Isle of Arran in south west Scotland. The trees were confirmed as a distinct species by DNA testing.[117]

Medical innovations

Pioneering the use of surgical anaesthesia with Chloroform: Sir James Young Simpson (1811–1870) [129]
The hypodermic syringe: Alexander Wood (1817–1884) [130]
Transplant rejection: Professor Thomas Gibson (1940s) the first medical doctor to understand the relationship between donor graft tissue and host tissue rejection and tissue transplantation by his work on aviation burns victims during World War II.[131]
The ultrasound scanner: Ian Donald (1910–1987) [132]
The MRI body scanner: John Mallard and James Huchinson from (1974–1980) [133]
Discovery of hypnotism (November 1841): James Braid (1795–1860) [134]
Identifying the mosquito as the carrier of malaria: Sir Ronald Ross (1857–1932) [135]
Identifying the cause of brucellosis: Sir David Bruce (1855–1931) [136]
Discovering the vaccine for typhoid fever: Sir William B. Leishman (1865–1926) [137]
Discovery of Staphylococcus: Sir Alexander Ogston (1880) [138]
Discovering the Human papillomavirus vaccine Ian Frazer (2006): the second cancer preventing vaccine, and the world’s first vaccine designed to prevent a cancer[139]
Discovering insulin: John J R Macleod (1876–1935) with others [9] The discovery led him to be awarded the 1923 Nobel prize in Medicine.[140]
Penicillin: Sir Alexander Fleming (1881–1955) [7]
General anaesthetic – Pionered by Scotsman James Young Simpson and Englishman John Snow[141]
The establishment of standardized Ophthalmology University College London: Stewart Duke-Elder a pioneering Ophthalmologist[63]
The first hospital Radiation therapy unit John Macintyre (1902): to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries and illness at Glasgow Royal Infirmary[142]
Pioneering of X-ray cinematography by John Macintyre (1896): the first moving real time X-ray image and the first KUB X-ray diagnostic image of a kidney stone in situ[142][143][144]
The Haldane effect a property of hemoglobin first described by John Scott Haldane (1907)[145]
Oxygen Therapy John Scott Haldane (1922): with the publication of ‘The Theraputic Administration of Oxygen Therapy’ beginning the modern era of Oxygen therapy[146]
Ambulight PDT: light-emitting sticking plaster used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating non-melanoma skin cancer. Developed by Ambicare Dundee’s Ninewells Hospital and St Andrews University. (2010)[147]
Discovering an effective tuberculosis treatment: Sir John Crofton in the 1950s [148]
Primary creator of the artificial kidney (Professor Kenneth Lowe – Later Queen’s physician in Scotland) [149]
Developing the first beta-blocker drugs: Sir James W. Black in 1964 [150] The discovery revolutionized the medical management of angina[151] and is considered to be one of the most important contributions to clinical medicine and pharmacology of the 20th century.[152] In 1988 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine.
Developing modern asthma therapy based both on bronchodilation (salbutamol) and anti-inflammatory steroids (beclomethasone dipropionate) : Sir David Jack in 1972
Glasgow coma scale: Graham Teasdale and Bryan J. Jennett (1974) [153]
Glasgow Outcome Scale Bryan J. Jennett & Sir Michael Bond (1975): is a scale so that patients with brain injuries, such as cerebral traumas[154]
Glasgow Anxiety Scale J.Mindham and C.A Espie (2003)[155]
Glasgow Depression Scale Fiona Cuthill (2003): the first accurate self-report scale to measure the levels of depression in people with learning disabilities[156]
EKG [Electrocardiography]: Alexander Muirhead (1911) [157]
The first Decompression tables John Scott Haldane (1908): to calculate the safe return of deep-sea divers to surface atmospheric pressure[158]
Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS): Strathclyde University (2014) A laser and nanoparticle test to detect Meningitis or multiple pathogenic agents at the same time.[159]

Household innovations

The television John Logie Baird (1923)
The refrigerator: William Cullen (1748) [160]
The first electric bread toaster: Alan MacMasters (1893)
The flush toilet: Alexander Cummings (1775) [161]
The Dewar flask: Sir James Dewar (1847–1932) [162]
The first distiller to triple distill Irish whiskey:[163]John Jameson (Whisky distiller)
The piano footpedal: John Broadwood (1732–1812) [164]
The first automated can-filling machine John West (1809–1888) [165]
The waterproof macintosh: Charles Macintosh (1766–1843) [166]
The kaleidoscope: Sir David Brewster (1781–1868) [167]
Keiller’s marmalade Janet Keiller (1797) – The first recipe of rind suspended marmalade or Dundee marmalade produced in Dundee.
The modern lawnmower: Alexander Shanks (1801–1845) [168]
The Lucifer friction match: Sir Isaac Holden (1807–1897) [169]
The self filling pen: Robert Thomson (1822–1873) [170]
Cotton-reel thread: J & J Clark of Paisley [171]
Lime cordial: Lauchlan Rose in 1867
Bovril beef extract: John Lawson Johnston in 1874 [172]
The electric clock: Alexander Bain (1840) [173]
Chemical Telegraph (Automatic Telegraphy) Alexander Bain (1846) In England Bain’s telegraph was used on the wires of the Electric Telegraph Company to a limited extent, and in 1850 it was used in America.[174]

Weapons innovations

The carronade cannon: Robert Melville (1723–1809) [175]
The Ferguson rifle: Patrick Ferguson in 1770 or 1776 [176]
The Lee bolt system as used in the Lee-Metford and Lee-Enfield series rifles: James Paris Lee [177]
The Ghillie suit [178]
The percussion cap: invented by Scottish Presbyterian clergyman Alexander Forsyth [179]

Miscellaneous innovations

Boys’ Brigade[180]
Bank of England devised by William Paterson
Bank of France devised by John Law
The industrialisation and modernisation of Japan by Thomas Blake Glover[181]
Kirin Brewing Company founded by Thomas Blake Glover[181]
Colour photography: the first known permanent colour photograph was taken by James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879)[182]
Safetray invented by Alison Grieve
Buick Motor Company by David Dunbar Buick[183]
New York Herald newspaper by James Gordon Bennett, Sr.[183]
Pinkerton National Detective Agency by Allan Pinkerton[183]
Forbes Magazine by B. C. Forbes[183]
The Calendar[184]
The establishment of modern Indian educational institutions: Alexander Duff the establishment of mass Hindu education thereof[185]
The establishment of a standardized botanical institute: Isaac Bayley Balfour major reform, development of botanical science, the concept of garden infrastructure therein improving scientific facilities[186]
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine: founded by Sir Patrick Manson in 1899[73]

Sports innovations

Main article: Sport in Scotland
Scots have been instrumental in the invention and early development of several sports:

Australian rules football Scots were prominent with many innovations in the early evolution of the game, including the establishment of the Essendon Football Club by the McCracken family from Ayrshire[118][119][120][121][122]
several modern athletics events, i.e. shot put[123] and the hammer throw,[123] derive from Highland Games and earlier 12th century Scotland [123]
Curling [124]
Gaelic handball The modern game of handball is first recorded in Scotland in 1427, when King James I an ardent handball player had his men block up a cellar window in his palace courtyard that was interfering with his game.[125]
Cycling, invention of the pedal-cycle [126]
Golf (see Golf in Scotland)
Shinty The history of Shinty as a non-standardised sport pre-dates Scotland the Nation. The rules were standardised in the 19th century by Archibald Chisholm [127]
Rugby sevens: Ned Haig and David Sanderson (1883) [128]
The Dugout was invented by Aberdeen FC Coach Donald Colmanin the 1920s

See also
List of domesticated Scottish breeds

References are very long so may be found here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_inventions_and_discoveries (last modified 14 Sept. 2014)