Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

em>Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012, By J. Lelieveld et. al., pictures
From: “Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidentsAtmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012, By J. Lelieveld et. al., below.

Ernest Moniz, head of the US Dept. of Energy, is or was affiliated with the Cyprus Institute. The primary author of this study is also affiliated with the Cyprus Institute. This means that Moniz must be well aware of the dangers of nuclear power which he continues to push and promote, making him the equivalent to all living beings on this planet to what the Nazis were to the Jewish people.[1]

Note that this study is about risk of the very worst nuclear accidents (scale 7), such as Fukushima and Chernobyl. Less major accidents are understood to be more frequent. It also does not seem to account for increasing risk with increasing reactor age and reactor life extensions, which would increase the accident risk. They discuss the unfairness associated with cross-border pollution: Germany closing its reactors decreases its risk less than if its neighbors would close theirs! (Recall that Norway and Austria, neither of which have nuclear power, were very badly hit by Chernobyl, which also speaks to the unfairness).

In total about 20 core melt events have occurred in military and commercial reactors worldwide since the early 1950s (Burns et al., 2012), cited below, in Lelieveld et. al.:
"Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus , p. 1
"Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus , p. 2
"Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus , p. 3
"Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus , p. 4
Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus p. 5
"Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus , p. 6
"Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus , p. 7
"Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus , p. 8
"Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus , p. 9
"Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus , p. 10
"Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus , p. 11
"Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus , p. 12
"Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus , p. 13
"Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus, p. 14
Yellow highlight and red underline added by us. The original may be found here: “Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidentsAtmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245–4258, 2012 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/ CC Attribution 3.0, By J. Lelieveld1,2, D. Kunkel1, and M. G. Lawrence1, 1Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus
Note from the above article that the contamination level is 1 mSv, which is what the US NRC thinks is acceptable as annual exposure from routine nuclear releases from nuclear facilities. The ICRP also allows 1 mSv for all annual exposures from nuclear facilities (with max of 0.1 mSv per facility). From the article (Lelieveld, et. al., 2012): “Although an objective measure for dangerous radioactive contamination is debatable, a level of >37 kBq137Cs m−2 or ≥40 kBq m−2 for beta- and gamma-emitters has been suggested after the Chernobyl accident as a threshold contamination level (IAEA, 2005, 2006). The reasons given by IAEA (2006) are that:
This level was about ten times higher than the 137Cs deposition in Europe from global fallout;
At this level the human dose during the first year after the major accident was about 1 mSv and was considered to be radiologically important.
….
This means, for example, that on average in the Northeast USA, West Europe and Japan contamination by major accidents is expected at least every 50 yr, which is in accord with the frequency of past events in Europe and Japan.
” (Lelieveld, et. al., 2012) This apparently means every 50 years per region, since Chernobyl was in 1986 and Fukushima in 2011.

[1] Ernest Moniz is 70 years old so perhaps he thinks there won’t be another big melt-down before he dies? But, he must hate his daughter and grandchildren. He hasn’t simply cultivated the look of a mad scientist. This has been obvious, however, since he announced from Japan, while supposedly visiting the Fukushima Daiichi disaster site, that nuclear would be part of the US Energy mix. If there are any survivors he will go down in infamy with another Portuguese named Moniz – Antonio Egas Moniz – inventor of the lobotomy, which destroyed many lives: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/António_Egas_Moniz Here is the story of Rosemary Kennedy whose life was destroyed by that earlier mad scientist named Moniz: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosemary_Kennedy

Ernest Moniz needs to go clean up Fukushima and finish his days sitting on the corium, if it can be found.

Moniz and the Cyprus Institute
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Moniz
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Cyprus_Institute