cataracts, cataracts and radiation, electro-magnetic spectrum, ICRP, ICRP Standards, ionizing radiation, Leaking Nuclear Reactors, nuclear power, nuclear power plant, nuclear power plants, Nuclear Reactor Standards, nuclear reactors, radiation exposure, Radiation protection, radiation standards, radioiodine, Skin Cancer, sunbathing, thyroid, thyroid disease, tritiated water, tritium, US EPA Standards, USA, UV
According to the article below, the emissions of the leakiest nuclear power stations in Germany, in 2010, gave a “reference person” radiation exposure of 0.005 mSv, excluding the thyroid, or 0.012 mSv including the thyroid (For reasons that continue to elude us, many of the “standards” seem to believe that the various organs do not constitute part of the body and may be exposed to more radiation. When was the last time you saw a thyroid or liver walking around by itself? The root of this strange situation appears to be in medical radiology, where it has some sense. Outside of medicine, it has none.)
As can be seen by the graph, which they provide, this is a very high emissions rate, as compared to the other, less leaky, nuclear reactors. Thus, it should not cause “hardship” to the nuclear power industry to have an exposure standard of 0.0005 mSv, 0.0003 mSv, or even less. The ICRP (2007) suggests that if there is a “prolonged component from long-lived nuclides“, then the “standard” should be 0.1 mSv. (ICRP Publication 103 (2007) pp. 105; 116). The US nuclear lobby seems to want everyone to believe that the ICRP standard is 1 mSv, whereas 1 mSv is supposed to be the maximum for all non-background, non-medical sources, according to the ICRP standard. The US EPA currently has a standard – up for grabs right now – of 0.25 mSv (i.e. 25 mrem) – excepting the thyroid, which is seemingly walking around on its own at 0.75 mSv (i.e. 75 mrems). Especially as it cannot be argued that it causes “hardship” to the nuclear power industry, Americans need to grab their chance and demand that the acceptable exposure standard be reduced from 0.25 mSV (25 mrem) to 0.0005 mSv (0.05 mrem), 0.0003 mSv (0.03 mrem), or even less.
Article from the European Nuclear Society starts here (Emphasis added):
“Radiation exposure, nuclear power plants, Germany
The radiation exposure in the environment of nuclear facilities is determined for the reference person defined in the Radiation Protection Ordinance based on the results of emission control in accordance with the process stipulated in the “General administrative regulation for the determination of radiation exposure by disposal of radioactive substances from nuclear plants or facilities”. The calculation of radiation exposure of the population in 2010 in the vicinity of nuclear power plants by the emission of radioactive substances with exhaust air resulted in an effective dose for adults of 0.004 mSv as the highest value for the Nuclear Power Plant Philippsburg; this is 1.5 % of the limit value of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The highest value of the thyroid gland dose for infants was calculated at 0.007 mSv (less than 1 % of the corresponding dose limit value) for the Nuclear Power Plant Philippsburg.
The highest value of the effective dose for adults from emissions of radioactive substances with the waste water from nuclear power plants amounted to 0.001 mSv (0.3 % of the dose limit value) at the location of the Nuclear Power Plant Emsland.
The radiation exposure at the lower reaches of the rivers has been closer examined with consideration of all emitters. For the mouth of the Neckar, an effective dose of about 0.0008 mSv for adults and of 0.0013 mSv for infants was established; at the lower reaches of Main and Weser 0.0003 mSv for adults and 0.0005 mSv for infants were calculated. On the Rhine and the Danube, the effective doses for adults were around 0.0001 to 0.0004 mSv.”
© European Nuclear Society, 2003 (2014), Reproduction is authorised, provided that the source is acknowledged. http://www.euronuclear.org/info/encyclopedia/r/radiation-exposure-npp.htm
© European Nuclear Society, 2003 (2014) Reproduction is authorised, provided that the source is acknowledged. http://www.euronuclear.org/info/encyclopedia/r/radiation-exposure-dose-limit.htm
Based on the above article, the German standards appear significantly less protective than US standards, which makes Germany sending its radioactive waste to the USA to be burned or stored, more perplexing still. Perhaps the US has weaker incineration standards for other pollutants, as has been suggested? Note that the first part of the chart is for nuclear workers. The second for the general public.
Note that while the maximum is supposed to be 1 mSv for Germans, that amount is exceeded for certain organs, especially the skin, eyes, and bone. And, yet everyone is supposed to wear sun screen and sun glasses to protect from the less dangerous UV rays of the sun, avoid sunbathing (even though it is a good source of Vitamin D and seeing full-spectrum (sun)light is critical for proper body function).
Electromagnetic Spectrum, NASA
Historically ionizing radiation (x-rays) was used to treat acne, and those treated developed thyroid disorders, thyroid cancer, and the less fortunate even lost parts of their faces to cancer. This is said to have occurred in urbane places like Toronto Canada’s University Medical Center. In poorer backwaters, “sun lamps” were used to treat acne, until – once again- people came back with skin cancer a few years later. So, what kind of game is the radiation protection racket playing by saying the skin doesn’t need to be protected? We are NOT supposed to sunbathe, even though it is an important source of Vitamin D, but it’s ok to deluge the skin with man-made radiation! Shall we also not bathe in water or walk in the rain because of radioactive, tritiated, water? How about washing clothes? Most radionuclides CAN be absorbed by the skin, even though one US government article implied that you can just dust it off, so the skin doesn’t matter. It’s hard to see what game they are playing or why. The US VA is also playing this game with atomic veterans who have had radionuclides sprayed onto their faces and got skin cancer – the VA wants to pretend that it wasn’t from the radionuclides!
And, the eyes, the eyes. How young shall people have cataract surgery and how many times? Or shall they be blind? If a blue-eyed farmer, working his entire life in a sunny tropical climate, who never owned a pair of sun glasses, gets cataract surgery at age 95, young people getting cataract surgery must be patently abnormal.