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When deciding to post this research bibliography, our intent was to show how much research had occurred by 1949 – well over 500 experiments-and thus that the dangers of radionuclides and ionizing radiation were well-known. Hence, subsequent research was and is senseless torture of animals.

And, the inherent dangers of the nuclear industry have been known, and anyone saying otherwise is ignorant of the facts or a liar.

The long-accepted standard of no safe dose of ionizing radiation, increasing dose is increasing risk, applies to external x-rays and gamma rays. The impact of internal, more powerful, alpha radiation, such as plutonium and americium, is recognized as much more severe. Alpha radiation is internal, more intensely damaging, and some alpha radionuclides can stay in the body for decades, continuing their intensive bombardment.

We are supposed to be working our way toward comment on an article discussing x-ray experimentation on butterflies, and how this is not necessary to study Fukushima. Mutations were shown in fruit-flies in 1926. Why torture butterflies to prove what has long been known?

But, as usual, all things are connected. The same people who do not mind torturing small helpless animals, such as bunnies and guinea pigs, or human’s best friend, the dog, also do not mind torturing the less cute animals called human beings.

This fact springs quickly forth from the pages of the research bibliography from 1949. Sometimes the victim is named as “rat” or “rabbit” or “dog” or “human” or “grasshopper” and sometimes the victim is left unnamed. We can guess that the unnamed are more likely humans. Is “Acute Toxicity of Intubated Plutonium. June 1946 Richard Abrams, Henri C. Seibert, Lyman Forker, David Greeriberg, Herman Lisco, L. 0. Jacobson, and Eric L. Simmons. (University of Chicago Met. Lab.) SECRET” about an animal or a human? This means that a tube was stuck in the individual and plutonium put down the tube. Human patients were unknowingly injected with plutonium in the 1945 to 1947 period, so it could well have been humans. You can be certain that not all of these experiments have come out in the open. The really weird, “UR-50 Preliminary Observations of Uranium Metal on Wound Healing with Reference to Gas Formation by W. F. Neumann -It. Allen, and B. J. Mulryan (University of Rochester) Jan. 13, 1949 RESTRICTED 6p,” was apparently upon some poor rabbits. They conclude that “as expected” there was no gas formation in the wounds of these tortured bunnies. So, why did they do it then?


As mentioned in the first part, the US entered World War II in December of 1941, subsequent to the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor, and the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, occurred in August of 1945. US President Obama was born in 1961, his mother in 1942, and his maternal grandmother in 1922, to put the times in context. His maternal grandfather was born in 1918. And, so his grandparents were mature adults in this period.

Ethics in general, and even medical ethics, has a long and illustrious history. The dangers of ionizing radiation were also well-known by the 1940s, and had been known for decades.

The Hippocratic Oath for medical professionals was written in Ionic Greek so dates from at least the late 5th century BC. “The philosopher and mathematician, Pythagoras (c. 580–c. 500 BCE), urged respect for animals… The first known animal protection legislation in Europe was passed in Ireland in 1635. It prohibited pulling wool off sheep…referring to ‘the cruelty used to beasts.’ In 1641 the first legal code to protect domestic animals in North America was passed by the Massachusetts Bay Colony.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_rights Is it a coincidence that the Irish chose to opt out of nuclear everything and that an Irish American Congressman, Markey, from Massachusetts, spear-headed the investigation into American nuclear guinea pigs?

Radiation experiments on humans are clearly in violation of the Hippocratic Oath, from the 5th century BC which stated: “I will prescribe regimens for the good of my patients according to my ability and my judgment and never do harm to anyone. I will give no deadly medicine to any one if asked, nor suggest any such counsel…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocratic_Oath Furthermore, “…During the post World War II era and immediately after its foundation, the WMA [World Medical Association] showed concern over the state of medical ethics in general and all over the world, taking the responsibility for setting ethical guidelines for the world physicians. The details of the Nazi Doctors’ Trial at Nuremberg and the revelations about what the Imperial Japanese Army had done at Unit 731 in China during the war clearly demonstrated the need for reform, and for a re-affirmed set of guidelines regarding both human rights and the rights of patients. In 1946, a study committee had been appointed to prepare a ‘Charter of Medicine’ which could be adopted as an oath or promise that every doctor in the world would make upon receiving his medical degree or diploma.” The result “was sent for consideration at the WMA’s second general assembly in Geneva in 1948. The medical vow was adopted and the assembly agreed to name it the ‘Declaration of Geneva.’ This document was adopted by the World Medical Association only three months before the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) which provides for the security of the person.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_Geneva

There were over 200,000 US military personnel exposed to nuclear fallout, often on purpose, known as “Atomic Veterans”. And, so, some of the research mentioned may be upon military or former military. Recall that during WWII, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War there were military drafts. So, these were not necessarily voluntary military recruits nor voluntary nuclear guinea pigs. Those who do not have the right kind of cancer even have trouble getting benefits, whereas exposure to nuclear fallout can cause all cancers, as well as other health problems.

So, when on p. 10 we see “Mon-H 277 Radiation Carcinogenetic Effects on the Lungs. April 1947. P. S. Henshaw, E. F. Riley, G. E. Stapleton, and M. B. Cupp. (Clinton Laboratories) UNCLASSIFIED“, it could be about animals, it could be about hapless US servicemen, it could be about someone who happened upon the wrong US hospital, as was the case for the human plutonium experiments run from 1945 to 47. These experiments suggest that the researchers were mostly lying about the poor health of those involved. Of course they were. They could not gain useful information about the impacts on healthy nuclear workers or military personnel if they were studying unhealthy patients.

The only thing which we found about lungs in either the 1984 “American Nuclear Guinea Pigs” report or the almost 1,000 page US “AdvisoryCommittee on Human Radiation Experiments” from 1995 was the following: “The most likely route of worker exposure to plutonium would be inhalation. Hempelmann and others wrote to Oppenheimer in March 1945 that ‘the very important and difficult problem of detection of alpha active material in the lungs has been studied only at this project and here only on a very limited scale. This problem should be given much higher priority here and at other projects.’ L. H. Hempelmann, Los Alamos Laboratory Health Division Leader et al., to J. R. Oppenheimer, Director of the Los Alamos Laboratory, 15 March 1945 (“Medical Research ofManhattan District concerned with Plutonium”)(ACHRE No. DOE-051094-A-17), 1. Inhalation experiments with rodents were undertaken, starting in 1944, at the University ofCalifornia’s Radiation Laboratory and the University of Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory, although these studies did not result in extensive analysis of data until the latter half of the 1940s.” p. 270 of “AdvisoryCommittee on Human Radiation Experiments
Final Report,” October 1995 https://ia700402.us.archive.org/10/items/advisorycommitte00unit/advisorycommitte00unit.pdf
One copy of “American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of Radiation Experiments on US. Citizens.” U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, is found here: http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/radiation/dir/mstreet/commeet/meet1/brief1/br1n.txt
There is also more than one pdf of it online.

Below we alternate two pages from the 1949 research bibliography with details of some of the cases mentioned, or of similar cases, in the 1984 Congressional report:
American Nuclear Guinea Pigs, 1984, US Congress, Summary
1949 Research Bibliography, p. 9:
OR 1949 Bib, p. 9 emphasis
Elaboration of the experiment with Phosphorus 32, Beta rays, mentioned on p. 9, above, from the American Nuclear Guinea Pigs, 1984 report:American Nuclear Guinea Pigs, 1984, p. 24 Phosphorus, Beta
A later report on the administration of radium and thorium to humans, which appears similar to CH3852 and UR 13, mentioned on p. 9 of the bibliography:
American Nuclear Guinea Pigs, 1984, p. 11, Radium thorium expts.  1961 to 65, p. 11American Nuclear Guinea Pigs, 1984, p. 11, Radium thorium expts.  1961 to 65, p. 12
1949 Research Bibliography p 10:
OR Biblio 1949, p. 10
The nail study, CH3833, from p. 10 (above) is discussed in detail below:
American Nuclear Guinea Pigs, 1984, p.26  nail, xrays, fingers
Some total body radiation experiments are listed on p. 10 and some are discussed in detail below. They were done by the University of Chicago and may be the same. US service personnel exposed to nuclear fallout or others could also be part of the summary research documents at University of Rochester (or elsewhere).
American Nuclear Guinea Pigs, 1984, Total Body rad p. 17American Nuclear Guinea Pigs, 1984, Total Body Rad p. 18