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10 April update for Daily readers, post continues here: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2014/04/10/radioactive-reindeer-chernobyl-guinea-pigs-part-viii-of-a-series/
This post is a continuation of Part VI, which focused primarily on the impacts of ionizing radiation upon immunity: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2014/02/22/radioactive-reindeer-chernobyl-guinea-pigs-part-vi-of-a-series/ Thus, it is recommended reading before continuing here.
Human Rabies, 1959, US gov
Case of Human Rabies, 1959. However, other diseases may look similar.

S. Shannon (1998) remarks the impact of radioactive fallout, whether from nuclear accidents or from nuclear weapons testing, upon immunity and disease:
On the correlation between low dose radiation and weakened immunity, radiation physicist, Dr. Ernest Sternglass, states in a 1986 article: ‘It appears that perhaps the most serious unanticipated effects of fallout is long-term, persistent immune deficiency.’ And he clarifies, ‘It can weaken the immune defenses of the body at very low total doses leading to unexpectedly large increases in infectious diseases and cancers’. (Int. J. Biosocial Res., July 1986, p. 18)… It is well known that radiation can cause mutations in bacteria and viruses. Andrei Sakharov, the famous Russian physicist, described in his 1992 Memoirs that even at low levels radiation could increase mutations of bacteria and viruses….” Dr. Ernest Sternglass further comments:
When the radiation from such isotopes as strontium-89 and 90 in the bone marrow mutates an existing virus that invades the T-cells of the immune system and kills them in the process of replication, the stage is set for the complete collapse of the immune defenses, and resulting death from opportunistic infections or cancer.” (“The Implications of Chernobyl for Human Health”, International Journal of Biosocial Research, p. 19, July 1986) http://www.ratical.org/radiation/HoLLR.html

There was an over 40-fold increase in Rabies in Belarus, 20 years after Chernobyl: http://www.who-rabies-bulletin.org/journal/Archive/Bulletin_2007_2.pdf. While this may indeed be, at least in part, because of lack of human presence, the possibility of rabies increase due to decreased immunity, caused by radiation, must be considered. Also, rabies attacks the central nervous system. So too can radiation, both externally and internally. Rabies causes acute encephalitis, i.e. brain inflammation, and this is where the behavioral changes have their origins. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies Diseases which impact the central nervous system can create similar effects, although from different sources. So, the increase of rabies could be from weakened immune systems. Also, in some cases, it may not even be rabies, but rather some sort of radiation induced dementia. For discussion of the impact of ionizing radiation on the brain see: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2014/03/14/alzheimers-disease-and-ionizing-radiation/

According to the WHO (2007) “The number of rabies cases reported has significantly increased during the last years especially in the Gomel region. After the Chernobyl nuclear power accident rabies among animals has increased by more than 40 times, and 6 cases were registered in humans. Presumably, this development is caused by uncontrolled population growth of abandoned pets in this area in combination with an increase in the number of wild carnivores (wolves, foxes) due to good food resources and ceased hunting. The most dangerous bites for humans were made by wolves (Canis lupus). For example, in 1996 one rabid wolf bit 14 dogs and 7 humans in 5 villages within hours. Wolves produce deep and wide wounds, especially causing severe head injuries, scalping and amputation of fingers….
In 2003, a rabid wolf from the Gomel region attacked animals and 4 humans. The biting of the rabid wolf caused multiple wounds. One woman suffered from a fractured nose and lacerations of the right forearm. Another woman showed disintegrating facial wounds, open fracture of the nasal bone, total loss of the right auricle and the salivary gland. Similar wounds were seen on another victim. She also suffered from severe head injuries. The wolf’s bites caused the amputation of the nose, the left auricle, the salivary gland and the right eye. Besides head injuries, lacerations on the right shoulder were recorded. The patient showed signs of a severe traumatic shock.
” “3.2 Complex rabies post-exposure prophylactic treatment after severe wolf bites in Belarus“. By N. Mishaeva, V. Votyakov, S. Velhin, M. Nekhai, L. Titov, Research Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology (RIEM), 20114 Minsk, Belarus http://www.who-rabies-bulletin.org/journal/Archive/Bulletin_2007_2.pdf From this it should be clear that contrary to pro-nuclear or wishful thinking media propaganda, post nuclear accident Chernobyl is not paradise on earth.
Chernobyl radiation map 1996
Chernobyl radiation map 1996 – 10 years after the accident; Shows Gomel.
Middle Ages rabid dog

Diseases which attack the brain-CNS can look similar, so it is not surprising that: “Rabies can be difficult to diagnose because, in the early stages, it is easily confused with other diseases or aggressiveness… The diagnosis can be reliably made from brain samples taken after death. The diagnosis can also be made from saliva, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid samples, but this is not as sensitive and reliable as brain samples…The differential diagnosis in a case of suspected human rabies may initially include any cause of encephalitis, in particular infection with viruses such as herpesviruses, enteroviruses, and arboviruses such as West Nile virus. The most important viruses to rule out are herpes simplex virus type one, varicella zoster virus, and (less commonly) enteroviruses, including coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, polioviruses, and human enteroviruses 68 to 71.” (bold added) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies (Much more information at the link, including prevention and tests used. See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies_testing )

Monday, 17 March 2014

The initial parts of this series detailed at length the contamination by radionuclides of Scandinavian and Finnish reindeer (hence the title) due to both above ground Nuclear Weapons Testing and Chernobyl. We also found and reblogged an important radio interview by a senior scientist from Finland’s Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). In this interview he mentioned the possible correlation between Alzheimer’s disease and the radiation:
Ari-Pekka Leppänen, senior scientist at Finland’s Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) tells us about nuclear accidents, radioactive reindeer, and an unlikely connection between Japan and Finnish Lapland.
According to Mr. Leppänen:
If the radiation is in lichen, it ends up into our own plate, and eventually we eat it after a given time, so if you want to have clean and healthy food, you’re not supposed to have radiation in it because it can cause harmful effects like cancer, but also other effects…These are under scientific debate, but some people say that it can cause high blood pressure, Alzheimer’s disease, but these are not very well understood mechanisms.
Ms. Bichell asked the question, which everyone wanted answered: “Has there been any research on if you actually see cancer in the reindeer?” Mr. Leppänen’s response:
Not that I know of. The system is that 75% of the reindeer that get slaughtered are less than one year old, so they don’t have time to accumulate the cancer. And only 25% are older. In the spring there’s calving, and they live through the summer and mostly to October/November and then they get slaughtered. And that’s the system that we have here in Finland.https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2014/01/17/episode-6-radioactive-reindeer/

This early slaughter of reindeer is important because they will not have had as long to bioaccumulate radionuclides; they will not have had much time to develop cancer; and perhaps would not have time to develop radiation related dementia. The Begum et. al., 2012, article on Alzheimer’s Disease (https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2014/03/14/alzheimers-disease-and-ionizing-radiation/) suggests a possible relationship between ionizing radiation and scrapie in sheep, something we will later return to, at length. For those who point out that scrapie has been documented in the UK for 250 years, we’ve two possible responses: a) a new variant of scrapie emerged in the late 1980s, along with new variant human CJD, and along with BSE (“Mad Cow Disease”), and b) pitchblende has been historically mined-found in conjunction with mining in the UK. Anyway, the interesting point here is that those who kill cows tend to do so at younger ages now BEFORE the cow has had the chance to show symptoms of BSE! “Signs of the disease are not usually seen until the cow is at least four or five years old“. http://www.defra.gov.uk/ahvla-en/disease-control/notifiable/bse/ It also occurs in regular deer (CWE), but has not been found in Reindeer: could it be because of the young age at slaughter? There is also believed a correlation between the human form of CJD, especially of the new variant variety, and the eating of contaminated meat. Some researchers have suggested a relationship between CJD and Alzheimer’s Disease. So, it is with interest that we note that in the 1979 to 2005 period, in the 2 northernmost municipalities of Finland, it was found that the Statistical Mortality Rates, “SMRs for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease were elevated among the Sami men“. The Sami people are the traditional, indigenous, Reindeer herders. Furthermore, “The mortality from accidents and violence was elevated both among the Sami…and among the non-Sami…Snowmobile and water transport accidents were especially common“. “Mortality of the Sami in Northern Finland”, 1979–2005, by Leena Soininen and Eero Pukkala, 2007. http://www.circumpolarhealthjournal.net/coaction/index.php/ijch/article/download/18227/2092 Obviously, if someone dies young in an accident they may not live long enough to develop cancer or age related dementia, just like the slaughtered reindeer. Food for thought, or then again…

Wednesday, 19 March 2014

It is also worth noticing that brain cancer is listed as one of the “presumptive diseases related to ionizing radiation“, by the US Veterans Administration (VA): “For Veterans who participated in a radiation-risk activity during service (including ‘Atomic Veterans’), VA assumes that certain cancers are related to their exposure. We call these ‘presumptive diseases.” These include brain cancer. http://www.publichealth.va.gov/exposures/radiation/diseases.asp

Where fallout from a nuclear accident might land, is sometimes counterintuitive. The Icelandic low pressure system must have sucked the radioactive plume in from Chernobyl to Scandinavia and Finland, and with rainfall, very high levels fell upon them, in various locations. Mountains must have had an impact upon fall. Hence, around 2,000 kms (1,242 mi) northwest of Chernobyl, some places received as much as those in close proximity to Chernobyl. Reindeer herding areas were particularly hard hit. About 1600 km (994 mi) to the southwest, Austria took a big hit, which is also counterintuitive. There must have been a second, probably Genoa low, acting in conjunction with mountains-rainfall.
Chernobyl fallout Europe
Note that the above map is for Caesium 137 only and is in kilobecquerels. The Chernobyl accident was on the 26th of April, 1986, i.e. almost 28 years ago.

In Norway, according to the government, “during the first couple of years after the fallout, high concentrations of radioactive caesium were measured in reindeer (150 000 Bq/kg), sheep (40 000 Bq/kg), wild mushrooms (up to 1-2 million Bq/kg), and freshwater fish (30 000 Bq/kg)….The current limits for radioactive caesium in foodstuffs for sale in Norway are:
Reindeer and game meat: 3000 Bq/kg, Freshwater fish: 3000 Bq/kg,
Milk and children’s food: 370 Bq/kg, Other foodstuffs: 600 Bq/kg
One Bq is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Becquerel If you’ve eaten it then we are talking of internal “shots” of radiation per second! The type of radionuclide determines the energy and size of that Becquerel “shot”.

Wild Pig KSC02pd0873
Two Wild Boars

Last August, a newspaper in southwestern Germany reported Chernobyl radiation found in wild boars 27 years after Chernobyl. (The half-life for Caesium 137 is about 30 years). The article says that, in South Baden, wild boars killed in the district of Waldshut showed the highest amounts of caesium 137. The highest amount was 5,654 becquerels per kilogram, in a wild boar killed in the area of St. Blasien. Above 600 becquerels it may not be eaten, under German law. The maximum amount found in the southwest of Germany was in a wild boar from Biberach district, which had more than 13,000 Becquerels of Caesium 137. 203 samples were examined between 31 April 2012 and 31 March 2013 in the district of Waldshut, for radioactive isotopes. 29 percent of the samples, i.e. almost one third, exceeded the maximum value allowed. In addition to St. Blasien, samples taken in the area of Bernau, Bonndorf, Dachsberg, Grafenhausen, Häusern, Herrischried and Uhlingen-Birkesdorf had high levels.
(“Tschernobyl in der Sau: Auch nach 27 Jahren ist im Kreis Waldshut noch jedes dritte Wildschwein radioaktiv belastet, ” Badische Zeitung, 15 August 2013 http://www.badische-zeitung.de/kreis-waldshut/tschernobyl-in-der-sau–74407436.html) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biberach_(district)

If you look at the map, which is actually in kBq and not Bq, you see that the area of Walshut-St. Blasien corresponds to the light gold, where the fallout was reportedly between 2 and 10 kBq, i.e. 2,000 to 10,000 Bq per square meter. The Biberach District, on the other hand, is in the dark gold, which was 10 to 40 kBq, i.e. 10,000 to 40,000 Becquerels per square meter. That was, of course, almost a half-life ago for Caesium 137! The average wild boar (worldwide) weighs 50–90 kg (110–200 pounds), and can weigh more. Average Italian wild boars are in the upper range. The maximum size in Central Europe is about 150 to 200 kg. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wildschwein http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild_boar
Assuming a size of 90 kg, then the boar from St. Blasien Germany would have had a total content of 508,860 Becquerels of Caesium 137! And, the one in the Biberach District would have had a content of 1,170,000 Becquerels! That’s over one million radioactive decays per second! Now, there’s a good reason to run if you see a wild boar coming! (Caesium 137 is a beta and gamma emitter).

StBlasienSchwarzwaldI http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Blaise_Abbey,_Black_Forest

Friday 21 march 2014

The most contaminated wild boar reported in Fukushima prefecture as of March 2012, one year after the disaster, was 14,600 Bq/kg, Cs 137-134. http://ajw.asahi.com/article/0311disaster/analysis/AJ201203280003 Compare this to 13,000 Bq/kg for the wild boar in Biberach, Germany. In humans “Cesium-137 has an effective half-life in an adult of about 110 days, and under chronic exposure conditions reaches a maximal dose contribution after about 2 years“. https://marshallislands.llnl.gov/glossary.php So, most likely the amount of cesium 137 in the Fukushima boars has continued to rise. Remember bioaccumulation! Although most people don’t associate Japan with wild boars, reportedly wild boars are going hog-wild in Fukushima prefecture since the accident. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/09/24/national/more-boars-mean-more-damage-in-fukushima They are also present in other prefectures.

Now you notice that if the wild boar has 600 Bq/kg then you are allowed to eat it in Germany. It would be illegal to sell it in Japan, where the standard is now 100 Bq/kg. According to information we found researching the first post of this series, https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2013/12/25/radioactive-reindeer/, whereas the EU-wide standard is a max of 600 Bq/kg for Cesium 134-137 (370 Bq/kg for milk-baby food), Sweden seems to have the limit at 1500 Bq/kg for Reindeer, wild game and freshwater fish. We assume that, like Norway, they follow European standards for other foods: 370 Bq/kg for baby food and milk, and 600 Bq/kg for other foodstuffs. https://www.foodwatch.org/en/what-we-do/topics/radiation/more-information/eu-radiation-limits/ According to Finland, who also got Chernobyl and Weapons Testing fallout: “The European Commission has given a more specific recommendation (2003/120/EC) concerning cesium concentrations in wild food products. In Member States the cesium-134 and cesium-137 concentrations of edible wild products on the market should not exceed the total of 600 Becquerel per kilo (Bq/kg).http://www.stuk.fi/stuk/tiedotteet/2003/en_GB/news_287/

However, the UK seems to have a standard varying from 600 Bq/kg to 1,000 Bq/kg of radiocaesium. It is unclear if the 1,000 Bq/kg is for all food within the UK, or only for sheep: http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/dec/29/sheep-farmers-chernobyl-meat-restricted The Japanese maximum standard is 100 Bq/kg total. This means that Europe allows food which is over 6 times more radioactive than Japan. And, the UK allows food, at least sheep meat, which is over 10 times more contaminated. Unlike external radiation, ingested radiation follows you around, because it is inside of you.

After it was remarked that food which was more radioactive than Japanese standards was arriving in Europe, Europe decided that it would adopt Japanese standards for products imported from Japan. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:299:0031:0041:EN:PDF Thereby Europe avoids dumping of Japanese radioactive food on its markets, including wild boars.

Not so for the US, Canada and Australia who appear happy to be dumped on, poisoning their own citizens in the process. The US has standards for radiocesium set at a whopping 1,200 Bq/kg, compared to Europe’s 600 Bq/kg. The US has a 1,532 Bq/kg standard for combined radionuclides, compared to Japan’s 100 Bq/kg. http://www.fda.gov/ICECI/ComplianceManuals/CompliancePolicyGuidanceManual/UCM074576 For babies and milk Japan allows 50 Bq/kg and for water 10 Bq/kg. Thus, the US allows 15 times more radiation in its food than Japan’s. It allows 31 times the radiation for milk-baby food, than Japan! Europe and Canada allow less radiation for baby food-milk, than other foods. Not so for the US, which allows 1,200 Bq/kg across the board. Australia and Canada seem to have maximums of 1,000 Bq/kg, although it is unclear if this is all radionuclides or only radiocaesium.

These “standards” are really supposed to be maximums or limits, but everyone knows how maximums-limits are treated. The high levels of radiation in German boars testifies to the fact that a maximum is maximum. In the US these limits are not legally binding.

Dumping of radioactive food on US, Australian, Canadian or other markets, by Japan or others, is not only bad for health and the environment, but it could be bad for the local farmers, if the prices of radioactive food undercut local food prices.

For protesting the situation in the USA, see: http://ffan.us/take-action Australia, New Zealand, and Canada appear to be following the FAO/WHO CODEX ALIMENTARIUS LEVELS FOR RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINATION: http://www.fao.org/docrep/u5900t/u5900t08.htm These rules are supposed to be for international trade after a nuclear accident. The Australian link we had now requires a security code. Info for China, Japan, and some other countries in charts here: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2013/12/25/radioactive-reindeer/

Sunday 23 March 2014

(We start by extending our digression because of its importance).
Hong Kong and Singapore also appear to be following the criminal food code called “Codex”. Among those countries listed at the link below, Japan, China and Taiwan appear to have the only governments who care a little bit about their own people. Even then, the food radiation levels allowed are not acceptable, but they are far better than those found in the Codex or US or Canada and mostly better than Europe. The summary, below, is the clearest and best about radiation in food “standards”, especially the Codex, although some of the information regarding Europe and Japan has changed: http://www.hkctc.gov.hk/en/doc/International_Recommendations_on_Safe_Levels_of_Radiation_and_Radionuclides_in_Food.pdf It is difficult to say which has the worst standards: Canada, the US or the Codex countries. The EU has improved its standards somewhat, but seems to have allowed higher levels of radiation in food, immediately after Fukushima. This appear the trick. In the event of a “nuclear emergency” the EU raises the levels allowed, unless this rule has since changed. Codex, and some of the other rules, appear based on faulty assumptions, such as underestimation of kg food intake (so Bq intake is also underestimated); that the emergency will be over in one year; that only 20 or 30% of eaten food would be contaminated (maybe true if food imported, but why import contaminated food from another country?), and that increased levels of cancer are acceptable. Also, there seems an assumption that internal and external exposure is the same, which is mostly false. There is an assumption that the radionuclides will clear the system promptly, which depends on the radionuclide, and whether or not food contamination is ongoing. Canada allows for 100,000 Bq/kg, as an intervention level, for tritium in food or water. This is apparently because they have Candu reactors which pollute with tritium. Perhaps this is where Japan should send its water, although it is unclear if Japan now has a tritium standard? Canada seems to have a dual law whereby it is supposed to be “only” 7,000 Bq/l tritium in water, but then jumps for an “emergency”, or perhaps the law changed. For international rules, or lack there of, for tritium see here: http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1029/ML102990104.pdf It is also hard to tell if the US “standards” are better or worse, because they include so few radionuclides in their “standards”. Much US food comes from Canada. The very unclear Canadian rules are here: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/contaminants/emergency-urgence/index-eng.php

The big mystery is why the US allowed 370Bq/kg Cs 134-Cs 137 in 1998 and now it allows 1,200 Bq/kg for Cs 134-137? Although China and Taiwan have generally superior standards, when compared to the US, Canada, and Codex countries, their standards still allow dumping of contaminated food from Japan, unless they have tightened their laws. It is interesting that Taiwan has kept the old US standard of 370 Bq/kg. Any protection in places like the US, Canada, Australia-New Zealand will have to come from Provincial or State governments.

And, so we were going to say that Canada, the US, and the “Codex” countries have NO STANDARDS for all practical purposes. But, once again the question becomes — compared to what? Compared to Radioactive Reindeer? Compared to the earlier US standard, still existing in Taiwan of 370 Bq/kg? Compared to Europe’s 600 Bq/kg? Compared to China’s “staple food” of 260 Bq/kg or even their meat at 800 Bq/kg for Cs 134-137 (current US “standard” is 1,200 Bq/kg)? Compared to Japan’s high of 100 Bq/kg or low of 50 Bq/kg for baby food and milk? http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/topics/2011eq/dl/new_standard.pdf

However, then we remembered how much radiation is still found in Chernobyl wolves! Compared to Radioactive Wolves? It took the Japanese newspaper, Asahi Shimbun, which seems to have a long history of investigative journalism, to finally tell us just how contaminated those wolves are! The US, Canadian and Codex “standards” would forbid the eating of Belarus wolves near Chernobyl and some other animals.
Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski - Wilki napadaj\uc0\u261 ce na sanie
The Chernobyl accident was in 1986 and based on 96 samples, from 1998 to 2000, the amount of cesium 137 in wolves in the Belarus “animal sanctuary” near Chernobyl was 40,800 Bq/kg. Between 2001 and 2005 the amount dropped to 23,900 Bq/kg based on 79 samples. However, the numbers went back up between 2006 and 2010 to 30,700 Bq/kg. This same pattern has been found in wild boar and other animals. Also, there can be great variations between individual animals. Among 100 raccoon dogs amounts varied from 300 Bq/kg to 1,417,500 Bq/kg. Information from “Cesium levels in animals around Chernobyl fail to drop” by Ichiro Matsuo, Asahi Shimbun, March 28, 2012. Read article here:  http://ajw.asahi.com/article/0311disaster/analysis/AJ201203280003 (note that original gives kBq/kg which we converted to Bq/kg). Although the author says the reasons for the new “spike” are unknown, if we recall correctly, they found a similar pattern in Scandinavia, as the cesium moved into the general environment.

Recall that the WHO reported a rabid wolf, who attacked 14 dogs, and 7 people, in 5 villages within hours, in 1996, in the Gomel region of Belarus. Also, in 2003, a rabid wolf from the Gomel region attacked animals and 4 humans. http://www.who-rabies-bulletin.org/journal/Archive/Bulletin_2007_2.pdf

Radiation biologist Natalia Manzurova tells of her experience at Chernobyl:
The dose of radiation exposure was so high that a lot of animals who were exposed to it just went mad… The dogs that were left in the zone went to the forest… foxes, wolves… started attacking people who were working in the zone In fact even the hogs in the wild, they also became mad and also started attacking.http://enenews.com/strange-animals-mad-began-attacking-humans-after-exposure-high-radiation-levels-chernobyl-scientist-dogs-foxes-wolves-hogs-video (2011, based on video)

More recently, The Moscow Times, 13 Dec. 2013, reports in “Villagers Hunt ‘Chernobyl Wolves’ After Attacks” that “hardened wolves” from near Chernobyl had attacked animals-livestock. They had not attacked humans. Their brains were to be checked for rabies if caught. http://www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/villagers-hunt-chernobyl-wolves-after-attacks/491457.html The brain appears the only definitive check for whether it is rabies or not.

Wednesday, 26 March 2014

Pig lovers, do not fear! The Wild Boars-Pigs will be back with a vengeance!

However, we need to correct and say that the 370 Bq/kg “intervention level” for radiocesium “standard” of the US gov dated from 1986, and the higher 1,200 Bq/kg was already in place in 1998. While all high “intervention levels” are based on the presumption of only part of the food intake being polluted, we remain convinced that if the higher numbers are on the books that it opens the door to all food eventually being contaminated at this level. It opens the door to radioactive food dumping on the US and the “Codex” countries, and not just from Japan, but from those countries strongly impacted by Chernobyl, since the EU contamination level is more strict. This may have negative economic impacts on farmers who are selling good food, if the radioactive food is dumped on the market at lower prices. As we have seen, it is not only the Ukraine and Belarus, who were strongly impacted by Chernobyl, but also European countries. We believe that these high “intervention levels” will lead to weaker radioactive emissions standards and more radioactive dumping in landfills and unfiltered or less filtered burning of radioactive waste. If everyone is told that this level will be ok to eat, then almost certainly everyone will soon be told that it is ok to dump it at these or higher levels. It also allows the industry to have more nuclear “accidents” and to portray them as no problem. Where-ever you live, inform yourself about the rules in your country and complain to your government that you do not want radiation in your food or water!

It is important to know that when the US government says contamination is “below the level of concern” this is what they mean — below 1,200 Bq/kg Cs. They play with this and say it’s blah, blah below the level of concern. If they tell you it is ten times below the level of concern, then it is 120 Bq/kg which is more than allowed in Japan! The same would be true for other countries and their “standards” of “intervention”. After Chernobyl, only a small amount of imported US food was more contaminated than the more protective standard of 370 Bq/kg. See: “Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human Food and Animal Feeds: Recommendations for State and Local Agencies”, US Dept. of Health/FDA http://www.fda. gov/downloads/MedicalDevices/…/UCM094513.pdf However, we do not know how much food was imported from contaminated regions. Here is some more recent FDA information about Japan: http://www.accessdata. fda.gov/cms_ia/importalert_621.html http://www. fda.gov/newsevents/publichealthfocus/ucm247403.htm It looks like the US gov is largely dependent upon the Japanese gov to tell them what is safe and unsafe. This certainly seems naive. The EU also seems to depend on what the Japanese say too.

Man Dies in Wild Boar Attack in Germany

At the beginning of the year, near Berlin Germany, to the north-northeast of our other German radioactive boars, an 80 year old man died in a wild boar attack. The boar bit the man and his wife. The man died of fright. He had a heart attack. See: “80-Jähriger stirbt nach Wildschwein-Attacke“, 03. Januar 2014 22:17 Uhr, B.Z., http://www.bz-berlin.de/bezirk/koepenick/80-jaehriger-stirbt-nach-wildschwein-attacke-article1784309.html Meanwhile, in Lithuania, in woods near Belarus, about 40 boar were found dead from November 2013 to January 2014, and some found dead as far back as summer of 2013. One man reported that the outward symptoms looked like African swine fever. The head of the community of hunters and a government inspector said that lab studies had not confirmed it as swine plague (fever): “We always respond to calls and collect samples, but laboratory studies do not suggest that this is plague; the cause of mortality has not been established.’ He expressed hope that the cause of boar death will be clarified soon.” See: “Biological Hazard in Lithuania” on Thursday, 16 January, 2014 http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/site/?pageid=event_desc&edis_id=BH-20140116-42316-LTU# http://hisz.rsoe.hu
Finally, “On the 24 January, African Swine Fever (ASF) was detected in two wild boars in southern Lithuania, an area that borders with Belarus. Immediate action was taken to prevent the further spread of the disease from the infected areas in Lithuania“. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-14-93_en.htm

Now, notice that finally 2 or more Wild Boar were diagnosed as having Swine Fever, but lab studies of other Wild Boar had indicated that it was not Swine Fever. So, it is possible that there were multiple causes of death. Thus, it could be that these Boars have weakened immune systems from radiation and more easily caught Swine fever or other things or this could still be more directly radiation-induced deaths. The disease could also get a good grip on those in Belarus with weakened immune systems and then spread outward. It’s hard to see how people would be able to tell if dead Wild Boar were red behind the ears, which seems the most specific exterior sign. In Swine Fever they have difficulty standing on their legs, which is something this has in common with scrapie or other neurological disorders:
In the acute form of the disease caused by highly virulent strains, pigs may develop a high fever, but show no other noticeable symptoms for the first few days. They then gradually lose their appetites and become depressed. In white-skinned pigs, the extremities turn blueish-purple and hemorrhages become apparent on the ears and abdomen. Groups of infected pigs lie huddled together shivering, breathing abnormally, and sometimes coughing. If forced to stand, they appear unsteady on their legs. Within a few days of infection, they enter a comatose state and then die…In milder infections, affected pigs lose weight, becoming thin, and develop signs of pneumonia, skin ulcers, and swollen joints.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_swine_fever_virus This is a very serious disease if you are a pig or dependent upon pigs for your livelihood. Traditionally in many countries, a pig is a sort of peasant savings account, which can be sold in an emergency. Such was the case in Haiti, where subsequent to African Swine Fever infection in the neighboring Dominican Republic, the US gov had the indigenous Haitian pigs killed off. This was devastating for the Haitian peasants.

Friday 28 March 2014

By mid February, 2014, the African swine fever was found in Poland:
African swine fever detected in Poland“, 18.02.2014, article here: http://www.thenews.pl/1/12/Artykul/162375,African-swine-fever-detected-in-Poland Meanwhile in Lithuania: “Wild boar cull in Lithuania amid African swine fever outbreak“, February 13, 2014, By Vaidotas Beniusis. Read more: http://www.smh.com.au/world/wild-boar-cull-in-lithuania-amid-african-swine-fever-outbreak-20140213-hvc4l.html Cull means they are killing them.

Herdwick ewe1
Herdwick Sheep. Photo by hollidaypics via wikimedia
Cumbria’s Herdwick sheep, beloved by Beatrix Potter. If she had not died so young, they never would have been impacted by Windscale-Sellafield, because she would have stopped it from being located in Cumbria. But she would have been unable to stop Chernobyl, the product of the Soviet (Russian) Nuclear Empire.

From a November 2011, UK gov report: “The Food Standards Agency (FSA) manages restrictions on the movement, sale and slaughter of sheep on farms in North Wales and in Cumbria, which remain affected by radiocaesium fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The restrictions are enforced using powers under the Food and Environment Protection Act (FEPA) 1985. A live sheep monitoring programme, known as ‘Mark and Release’, operates to ensure that sheep exceeding 1,000 Bq/kg of radiocaesium do not enter the food chain…Sheep were monitored directly following upland grazing during the summers of 2010 and 2011. The summer period ensured the radiocaesium activity concentrations in the sheep were at their peak. In addition, by monitoring directly following upland grazing, it meant that farming practices (e.g., fattening on lowland pasture) would not lower the radiocaesium levels. This allowed the maximum consumer doses to be established…The mean radiocaesium activity concentration in sheep on each restricted farm ranged from <160 Bq/kg to 739 Bq/kg and the maximum from <160 Bq/kg to 1433 Bq/kg. Only 4 out of 78 farms recorded sheep above 1,000 Bq/kg. No more than 2.5% percent of sheep on each of these four farms exceeded this limit.http://multimedia.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/chernobylassessment.pdf (April 2011 Greenpeace document about ongoing contamination near Chernobyl. Note that some feed for animals was sourced from elsewhere; also the importance of soil type: http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/publications/nuclear/2011/Pilot%20Investigation%20Food%20Products-1.pdf )

From the Guardian: “Sheep farmers still stuck under a Chernobyl cloud: Ever since radiation from Chernobyl rained down on the UK 23 years ago, sales of sheep in affected areas have been restricted. But frustrated farmers now claim the meat is safe – and that testing should stop.” By Leo Hickman, The Guardian, Tuesday 29 December 2009 Article here: http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/dec/29/sheep-farmers-chernobyl-meat-restricted

Meat from Cumbrian Herdwick sheep was recently given a special EU protective status: “The distinctive tasting meat was sampled by the Queen at her 1953 Coronation banquet. Meat from the estimated 50,000 animals can now only be classed as Lakeland Herdwick if they are born, reared and slaughtered at one of three registered abattoirs in Cumbria“, 16 May 2013, BBC, “Protected status for Lakeland Herdwick sheep.” They further state that the protected status was first applied for in 2003. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-cumbria-22556372 Note that the Queen tasted the Herdwick sheep meat in 1953, i.e. BEFORE the Windscale fire and BEFORE Chernobyl! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windscale_fire Has the Queen eaten this meat since Windscale and Chernobyl? Those UK sheep who exceed 600 Bq/kg presumably cannot be exported elsewhere in the EU, unless there is a loophole in the law. It is important to point out that more than one variety of sheep appear to have been impacted.

In February 2012, the Agency for Cultural Affairs recommended that ‘Washoku: Traditional Dietary Cultures of the Japanese’ be added to the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. On December 4, 2013, ‘Washoku, traditional dietary cultures of the Japanese, notably for the celebration of New Year’ was added to UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage, bringing Japanese assets listed on UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage list to 22.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_cuisine http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/RL/00869 The push for this seems to date from 2011: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/doc/download.php?versionID=20649 Does anyone else suspect that this has something to do with Fukushima in 2011 and radiation in food? Some may recall that it was used by international media to more generally promote Japanese food products, such as fish. To those who forgot about Fukushima, maybe and who have less strict standards for radiation in food?

Sunday, 30 March 2014

As mentioned toward the beginning of this post, Begum et. al. 2012, suggest a possible relationship between ionizing radiation and scrapie in sheep (where IR is ionizing radiation and AD is Alzheimer’s Disease):
Finally, developing discoveries of the genetic factors associated with AD might bring some understanding of the possible connections between IR and AD. For example, it has been shown by GWAS that a variant for the locus containing the clusterin gene (CLU, or apolipoprotein J; APOJ) is associated with susceptibility for late-onset AD. Clusterin gene expression is responsive to various stress-inducing agents, including IR and oxidative stress; it has been involved in ageing and various ageing-related pathological conditions like atherosclerosis, kidney degenerative diseases and neurodegenerative diseases (AD, Scrapie, Pick’s disease)“. Full paper here: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2014/03/14/alzheimers-disease-and-ionizing-radiation/

On the 28th of April, 1986 the Chernobyl nuclear accident happened, which, as we have seen, heavily impacted areas of the UK. A new type of scrapie appeared in the UK, around the time of Chernobyl, which was also a couple of decades after most above ground Nuclear weapons testing occurred [1]: “Atypical scrapie has been detected in recent years, primarily through the testing programme for fallen stock and abattoir culls. However, retrospective studies have indicated that it has been present in the UK since the late 1980s. The route of infection is poorly understood and the disease is most commonly seen in animals over five years old“. http://www.defra.gov.uk/ahvla-en/disease-control/notifiable/scrapie/ ([1] The UK was also impacted by above ground weapons testing, as well as by the 1957 Windscale nuclear accident. So, there may be cumulative effects, and also could be a time lag. Still, the new variant of the similar human disease, (CJD), has been characterized by its shorter “incubation” period, compared to traditional CJD). The US CDC specifies that atypical scrapie in UK sheep dates to 1987/1989. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/19/11/12-1341_article.htm

The appearance of a new scrapie at this time is especially interesting because BSE aka “Mad Cow” disease is related to sheep scrapie. In November of 1986, BSE “Mad Cow” disease was first identified in the UK: “1986: BSE Identified: In November the disease Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy – BSE – is first identified by the government’s Central Veterinary Laboratory. The first case of the disease was found in the herd of West Sussex farmer Peter Stent, who had contacted vets after he found one of his cows behaving in an abnormal way.http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/health/2000/bse/1986.stm. It is also related to human CJD, especially in its new variant form, first recognized in 1996 and “Researchers believe one in 2,000 people in the UK is a carrier of the disease …” 15 Oct. 2013, “Estimate doubled for vCJD carriers in UK“, by Michelle Roberts: http://www.bbc.com/news/health-24525584

Importantly, as explained in this excellent educational piece on scrapie, the etiology or cause of these diseases remains unproven, despite claims to the contrary:
Scrapie is a fatal, degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system of sheep and goats…More recently, increased attention and concern has been paid to all transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases, including scrapie, as a result of the discovery of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, and the link between BSE and new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD) in people and feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) in cats in Europe… Scrapie is classified as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). The agent responsible for scrapie and other TSEs is smaller than the smallest known virus and has not been completely characterized. There are three main theories on the nature of the scrapie agent: (1) the agent is a virus with unusual characteristics, (2) the agent is a prion, an exclusively host-coded protein that is modified to a protease-resistant form after infection, and (3) the agent is a virino, a small, noncoding regulatory nucleic acid coated with a host-derived protective protein. The scrapie agent is extremely resistant to heat and to normal sterilization processes. It does not evoke any detectable immune response or inflammatory reaction in host animals… Signs of scrapie vary widely among individual animals and develop very slowly. Due to damage to nerve cells, affected animals usually show behavioral changes, tremor (especially of head and neck), pruritus, and locomotor incoordination that progresses to recumbency and death…. Several other problems can cause clinical signs similar to scrapie in sheep, including the diseases ovine progressive pneumonia, listeriosis, and rabies; the presence of external parasites (lice and mites); pregnancy toxemia; and toxins… Scrapie research efforts are currently focused on developing a practical live animal test to diagnose infected sheep before they show signs, investigating transmissibility of the agent, identifying the scrapie agent and its different strains,… The TSE family of diseases includes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which affects cattle; transmissible mink encephalopathy; feline spongiform encephalopathy; chronic wasting disease of deer and elk; and kuru, both classical and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia, five rare diseases in humans. TSEs have also been reported in Europe in captive wild ruminants in the bovid family, cats, and monkeys. The occurrence of TSEs in captive wild animals is believed to have resulted from BSE-contaminated feed“. (Emphasis added) Read the entire piece and additional information here: http://www.eradicatescrapie.org/About%20Scrapie/Fact%20Sheet.html Another hypothesis is that they are caused by spiroplasma. And, yes, you can also find hypotheses proposing a relationship between ionizing radiation and these diseases. This might be, for instance, directly through damage to protein, or indirectly through genetic changes and decreased immunity, for example. We also must not forget the capacity of most radionuclides to act as poisons to the body, apart from the ionizing radiation.

Tuesday, 1 April 2014

When examining radionuclides in the body we have alluded to, but perhaps not defined two concepts. One is bioaccumulation, which deals with an individual plant or animal, and the other is biomagnification, where a radionuclide or other toxic substance may concentrate, going up the food chain. Hence, we expected, and saw above, that since wolves are “apex predators”, at the top of the food chain, that the Chernobyl wolves have extremely high levels of radionuclides. Biomagnification of radionuclides in Alaskan wolves is discussed below. And, yes, this also ties into theories related to scrapie and the BSE “mad cow” outbreak in the UK, as we will discuss later. Recall, as well, that many of the radionuclides are, like mercury, classified as heavy metals (toxic metals). Thus, they have both radiation (radiological) impacts and bio-chemical (poisoning) impacts.

Bioaccumulation refers to the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other organic chemicals in an organism Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at which the substance is lost. Thus, the longer the biological half-life of the substance the greater the risk of chronic poisoning, even if environmental levels of the toxin are not very high.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioaccumulation But, as we have stated many times, if the environment is chronically contaminated, the toxic substance enters into an equilibrium state in the body and the body remains contaminated. Also, radionuclides like plutonium have extremely long biological half-lives.

Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification, occurs when the concentration of a substance, such as DDT or mercury, in an organism exceeds the background concentration of the substance in its diet. This increase can occur as a result of:
Persistence – where the substance can’t be broken down by environmental processes
Food chain energetics – where the substance concentration increases progressively as it moves up a food chain
Low or non-existent rate of internal degradation or excretion of the substance – often due to water-insolubility
The following is an example showing how bio-magnification takes place in nature: An anchovy eats zoo-plankton that have tiny amounts of mercury that the zoo-plankton has picked up from the water throughout the anchovies lifespan. A tuna eats many of these anchovies over its life, accumulating the mercury in each of those anchovies into its body. If the mercury stunts the growth of the anchovies, that tuna is required to eat more little fish to stay alive. Because there are more little fish being eaten, the mercury content is magnified.
Biological magnification often refers to the process whereby certain substances such as pesticides or heavy metals move up the food chain, work their way into rivers or lakes, and are eaten by aquatic organisms such as fish, which in turn are eaten by large birds, animals or humans. The substances become concentrated in tissues or internal organs as they move up the chain. Bioaccumulants are substances that increase in concentration in living organisms as they take in contaminated air, water, or food because the substances are very slowly metabolized or excreted
“. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomagnification

High levels of radiocesium (bioaccumulation) were found in Alaskan reindeer/caribou following the Above Ground Nuclear Weapons Testing. (Note that this is muscle meat only, and not the internal Reindeer-Caribou organs). They further discuss the impact on wolves, due to predator biomagnification: “In Alaska, the highest radiocesium concentrations in reindeer/caribou muscle were measured during winter in the mid-1960’s and ranged from 1200 to 1800 Bq/kg wet muscle following a change in the diet of the caribou from predominately lichens in winter to vascular plants in late spring through early autumn… In addition to caribou, wolves predating on caribou also become contaminated and the body burden of wolves may be 4 to 10 times that of caribou. However, a radiocesium body burden much lower than that of caribou is common when the principal food is not caribou. Holleman and Stephenson (1981) have used estimates of the radiocesium body burden of wolves to indicate their predation rate on caribou. Therefore, unless precautions are taken to prevent the absorption of radiocesium, the body burden of animals fed contaminated reindeer/caribou flesh and offal could reach levels up to 10 times that in the food“. (Emphasis added) From “Radiocesium concentrations in the lichen-reindeer/caribou food chain: Before and after Chernobyl“, By Robert G. White, Dan F. Holleman and Ann C. Allaye-Chan, Rangifer, 1986, No. 1. Appendix http://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/rangifer/article/download/579/549

Just what is offal?
Offal… also called variety meats or organ meats, refers to the internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal. The word does not refer to a particular list of edible organs, which varies by culture and region, but includes most internal organs excluding muscle and bone“. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Offal

Thursday, 3 April 2014

Hereford Bull: http://archive.defra.gov.uk/foodfarm/farmanimal/diseases/atoz/bse/controls-eradication/causes.htm

Cows or cattle are herbivores, as are sheep (and deer, reindeer-caribou). But, in the UK, which has a particularly dense human and sheep population, herbivores were fed animal offal-meat and bone “meal”. Thus, herbivorous, primary consumers were turned into top apex consumers, like wolves. So, whatever the cause of BSE, aka “mad cow” disease, it is believed to tie into this very unnatural state of affairs of turning herbivores into carnivores. This, as for the wolves, would have led to increased bioaccumulation through bio-magnification of radionuclides, unless they were somehow removed in processing. And, Alaskan wolves were found to have 4 to 10 times higher levels of radiocesium than the reindeer-caribou, upon which they feast.

Recall that Lehto (2009) found that the majority of 137 Caesium activity is in the meat, the majority of the Plutonium activity is found in the liver, and 241 Americium is found about 30% in the meat, almost 40% in the skeleton, with the remaining 40% in other tissues and organs. See: http://www.borenv.net/BER/pdfs/ber14/ber14-427.pdf (We discussed this here: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2014/01/11/radiation-and-reindeer-plus-sheep-part-iii-of-a-series/ ) Thus, eating the offal-meat and bone meals would lead to increased intake of radionuclides by cattle, sheep, and, by extension, any humans who eat the cattle or sheep. This would be especially true for plutonium, americium, and strontium. Strontium mimics calcium and is a bone-seeker. This is true regardless of if radionuclides have anything to do with BSE.

Cattle and sheep are ungulates (usually hoofed animals), ruminants, and herbivores: “Cattle (colloquially cows) are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates…Cattle are ruminants, meaning their digestive system is highly specialized to allow the use of poorly digestible plants as food…http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CattleHerbivores form an important link in the food chain; because they consume plants in order to ingest the carbohydrates produced by a plant with the help of Photosynthesis. Carnivores in turn consume herbivores for the same reason, while omnivores can obtain their nutrients from either plants or animals. Due to a herbivore’s ability to survive solely on tough and fibrous plant matter, they are termed the primary consumers in the food cycle(chain)“. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbivore

Ovine, used here, is sheep: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ovis)
The BSE Inquiry Report, published in October 2000, concluded that the development of the BSE epidemic resulted from the use of infectious meat and bone meal (MBM) in cattle feed. The MBM had been produced by the rendering (industrial cooking) of carcasses of cattle infected with BSE. Cattle feed contaminated with pig or poultry feed containing MBM continued to infect cattle after the 1988 ban on the use of ruminant MBM in cattle feed, although the feed ban and 1990 Specified Bovine Offal (SBO) controls markedly reduced the risk of infection. The feeding of MBM to all farmed animals was banned in 1996 and an EU-wide ban has been in place since 2001.

The United Kingdom has introduced two restrictions on the use of meat and bone meal in ruminant feeds. The first is a complete ban on the feeding of ruminant-derived protein to ruminants, which was introduced to control BSE by preventing new infections from contaminated feeds (HMSO. 1988a).

The second restriction came in later, initially for public health reasons … and latterly for animal health reasons … This bans the use of certain specified bovine offals in human food and animal feedstuffs. The banned offals are those likely to contain the highest amounts of BSE agent in infected cattle. The second restriction also prevents the export to other EEC Member States of specified offals from all bovine animals over the age of six months, and any food products derived from them (HMSO, 1990b).

However, there are no United Kingdom restrictions on the export of meat and bone meal derived from the non-specified bovine wastes (which would have very little infectivity) or material derived from sheep (which would have a significant amount of infectivity). Nor has the EEC imposed any restrictions on trade in meat and bone meal (although several member countries have banned imports from the United Kingdom).

Since the feeding of material of ovine origin to cattle is believed to have been the origin of the BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom, countries wishing to import British meat and bone meal from this country would be well advised not to feed it to ruminants. The feeding of meat and bone meal from other countries with scrapie is considered below“. http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0573e/t0573e0b.htm

Regarding the relationship between scrapie in sheep and BSE, the UK states:
In the light of recent estimates of the incidence of scrapie in sheep in the UK, and of further considerations of the properties of scrapie agents, it is no longer possible to exclude an unmodified scrapie agent as the agent responsible for BSE
With regard to the origin of the BSE agent:
a. During the period 1970-1985, the UK had the largest population of sheep and the third largest population of cattle within the EU. Overall, the UK had one of the highest ratios of sheep to cattle.
b. It is estimated that, in the UK, there are between five and ten thousand cases of scrapie in sheep per year. Comparisons with other countries cannot be made since corresponding data are not available. If the proportion of sheep to cattle carcasses included in MBM reflects the proportions in the standing stocks, then UK MBM would contain a relatively high level of scrapie infected material.
c. This material may have included a BSE strain. Although no scrapie strain yet identified has the characteristics of BSE, the evidence for ruling it out is not strong since it is based on studies of only a small number of scrapie infected sheep. Furthermore, it is known that scrapie strains can on occasion change their characteristics on transmission through a new species. Other possible sources of a TSE agent that may have been included in the MBM contained in the starter rations of artificially reared calves include a sporadic event in a cow or TSE infected tissue from other sources, such as goats or exotic ungulates
. http://archive.defra.gov.uk/foodfarm/farmanimal/diseases/atoz/bse/publications/documents/bseorigin.pdf (emphasis added)

The Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN concluded:
By far the simplest way to prevent BSE is to avoid the use of meat and bone meals and any other sources of ruminant protein, in cattle feed. This approach can take more than one form.

Material from sheep can be rendered separately from that of other species and specifically excluded from cattle feed. But this would not prevent the recycling of infection that was already present in cattle. This is why the United Kingdom ruminant protein ban applied to material derived from all ruminants, including cattle (HMSO, 1488a).

The ban also applied to the feeding of ruminant protein to sheep (as well as to cattle and deer) to prevent the recycling of scrapie infection in the sheep population which, in the past, may have contributed to endemic scrapie“.

Sunday, 6 April 2014

There are multiple ways that radioactive elements can make someone lose their minds. There are many diseases which impact the central nervous system and there are multiple causes of dementia. Sometimes boredom and depression are mistaken for dementia in the elderly, as well. (There is also stress-induced short-term memory loss.) And, one should not be surprised, then, that in the understanding of BSE “mad cow” disease, there is a movement toward a belief that there are multiple forms of BSE. This opens up the possibility that some may be induced by radionuclides and others not.

We have discussed how radiation impacts the immune system, and thus can make people and animals more susceptible to disease, including ones which impact the central nervous system. Radionuclides also impact the brain and central nervous system directly, both radiologically and chemically. And, without a brain biopsy it remains difficult to sort out the difference between rabies, BSE and other TSEs “transmissible spongiform encephalopathies”, or some other diseases which may impact the central nervous system. Obviously, if an individual is sick enough to have a biopsy of their brain, they are either dead or far gone. It is also a pesky affair to have to look at the brain of a person or animal, and, in some instances, such as the TSEs, dangerous to the person examining the brain. The human form, CJD leads to death very quickly. http://memory.ucsf.edu/cjd/overview/symptoms The traditional form looks very much like a fast-moving case of Alzheimer’s disease. Some believe that they are related and they appear to have to do with deformed-“misfolded” proteins. And, we must not forget the possibility of brain tumors and cancer, which may even go undiagnosed, especially in animals.

Those who have read our most recent post, will have noticed that related topics were known, and listed as part of a 5 year wish-list for US gov funded research projects, in 1947!
23-24 January 1947 Meeting of the Interim Medical Committee of the United States Atomic Energy Commission” by Stafford Warren Chairman, Interim Medical Committee, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission (See original here, if you have not: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2014/04/05/what-was-known-in-1947-about-the-dangers-of-nuclear/ )

When thinking about immunity it is important to recall that:
Bone marrow is also a key component of the lymphatic system, producing the lymphocytes that support the body’s immune system“. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_marrow

Excerpts from Stafford, 1947, related to immunity:
It has been known that radiation depresses the function of the hematopoietic system (bone marrow, lymph nodes, etc.)
The effects of irradiation on…the hematological defenses against infection” (listed under “specific projects”)
The mechanism of blood vessel injury by radiation. 2. Bone marrow injury by radiation, its repair and treatment.
Many radioactive materials are deposited in the body, like radium, and in such locations product injury to tissue, particularly the bone marrow.

Note that he also refers to “The mechanism of blood vessel injury by radiation.” That he wants to know the mechanism, means that blood vessel injury is known to occur. And, blood vessel injury can cause problems with brain function, as well.

Excerpt from Stafford, 1947, related to the nervous system:
Radiation effects are being investigated on blood constituents and blood forming organs as well as on the nervous system.
Stafford, 1947, excerpt related to proteins:
Protein degradation following radiation and chemical injury.”
[Recall that “mad cow”, TSEs, and Alzheimer’s are characterized by protein deformations in the brain, although whether these are the cause or the effect is still debated: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prion ]
Stafford, 1947, excerpt related to cancer:
“The mode of action of radiation in the production of cancer.
We have also discussed the genetic basis of immune breakdown and a possible radiation-induced genetic change in the etiology of scrapie. In 1947, Stafford talked about:
production of physiological, histopathological and biochemical and genetic evidences of damage. Some progress has been made here.
A concentrated attack is being made on radiation effects on the rate of mitosis, chromosome breaks and exchanges, gene mutations and the general genetical makeup of the cell
Stafford also speaks of the mix of chemical and radiological effects of radionuclides, which have entered the body. They may both chemically poison, as well as have radiation impacts. This too can impact the brain:
Studies on the chemical effects or radiation which are fundamental to its biological response.”
chemical toxicity or localized radiation from such materials deposited within the body.

(And, yes, some radionuclides are able to get across the blood-brain barrier in various ways, and so can impact the brain directly).

More recently, the US CDC discusses belief in multiple strains of BSE, “mad cow” disease:
There is increasing evidence that there are different strains of BSE: the typical BSE strain responsible for the outbreak in the United Kingdom and two atypical strains (H and L strains).

Typical BSE strain — The BSE strain responsible for most of the BSE cases in Canada is the same classic or typical strain linked to the outbreak in the United Kingdom. It is known to be preventable through elimination of BSE contaminated feed and has been causally linked to vCJD in humans. This typical strain has not yet been identified in any U.S.-born cattle.

Atypical BSE strain — In July 2007, the UK Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee (SEAC) suggested that atypical BSE may be a distinct strain of prion disease. Unlike typical BSE, cases of atypical BSE, according to SEAC, may have risen spontaneously (although transmission through feed or the environment cannot be ruled out). Recently reported French surveillance data support this theory that unlike typical BSE, atypical BSE appears to represent sporadic disease

All (3) of the U.S.-born BSE cases and two of the 19 Canadian-born BSE cases were 10 years of age or older and caused by atypical BSE strains. Of these 5 older North American cases, 3 were linked to an atypical BSE strain known as the H-type. The strain type for the other two older North American cases, a 13-year-old BSE-infected Canadian cow and a 10-year-old BSE-infected US cow, have been identified as the L-type” (bold added) http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/bse/

Tuesday, 8 April 2014

Due to the BSE cases, whereas in the US Meat and Bone meal is widely used as dog and cat food, most in Europe is now used as a “renewable” biofuel. It has “around two thirds the energy value of fossil fuels such as coal.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meat_and_bone_ Although this appears an up side to the BSE outbreak, it seemingly would make any radionuclides ingested by animals airborne, unless filtration catches the radionuclides.

Twelve major nuclear weapons tests were done by the UK in Australia between 1952 and 1957. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_weapons_tests_in_Australia
Rael Nuclear use locations world map
Map by Palli3000, via wikimedia
Over 2,000 nuclear explosions have been conducted, in over a dozen different sites around the world. Red: Russia/Soviet Union; blue: France; light blue: United States; purple: Britain. Black Israel, orange China, yellow India, brown Pakistan, green North Korea and light green (territories exposed to nuclear bombs)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_weapons_testing
(Note that New Zealand is to the lower right, i.e. southeast of Australia)
Map prevailing winds on earth

Scrapie was first detected in sheep in New Zealand in 1952 and again in 1954. These sheep had been imported from the UK in 1950. This next incident did not occur until 1976, when the sheep were still quarantined. http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/node/2404/related_faqs http://www.sciquest.org.nz/elibrary/download/47348/Scrapie_freedom_-_the_New_Zealand_story.pdf Scrapie was found in Australia in 1952, in Victoria. http://nahis.animalhealthaustralia.com.au/pmwiki/pmwiki.php?n=Factsheet.111-2?skin=factsheet We note that in July 1974, a French nuclear test exposed Tahiti “to 500 times the maximum allowed level of plutonium fallout“. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jul/03/french-nuclear-tests-polynesia-declassified

During the period from June 30, 1946, to August 18, 1958, the United States conducted 67 nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands, all of which were considered atmospheric. The most powerful of those tests was the ‘Bravo’ shot, a 15 megaton device detonated on March 1, 1954, at Bikini atoll. That test alone was equivalent to 1,000 Hiroshima bombs. While the Bravo test is well known, it should be acknowledged that 17 other tests in the Marshall Islands were in the megaton range and the total yield of the 67 tests was 108 megatons, the equivalent of more than 7,000 Hiroshima bombs. For the sake of comparison, it may be noted that from 1945 to 1988, the U.S. conducted a total of 930 known nuclear tests with a combined yield estimated to be 174 megatons. Approximately 137 megatons of that total was detonated in the atmosphere. In other words, while the number of tests conducted in the Marshall Islands represents only about 14% of all U.S. tests, the yield of the tests in the Marshalls comprised nearly 80% of the atmospheric total detonated by the U.S.http://www.nuclearclaimstribunal.com (Emphasis added)

Between Australia and the Marshal Islands lies Papua New Guinea. Note that ocean distances on this map are very compressed, apparently to get them all on one map. But, it gives the names.
Melanesian Cultural Area
Actual map from google:
Marshall Islands-Papua New Guinea

The human form of “mad cow” (TSE) CJD is related to Kuru:
Kuru was first noted in the Fore tribes of Eastern Highlands and lowlands Provinces of Papua New Guinea as Australian administrators explored the area in 1953–1959. Kuru (Keru) was reported by W. T. Brown in Kainantu Patrol Report No 8 of 1953/54 (13 January 1954 – 20 February 1954.)… The first sign of impending death is a general debility which is followed by general weakness and inability to stand. The victim retires to her house. She is able to take a little nourishment but suffers from violent shivering. The next stage is that the victim lies down in the house and cannot take nourishment, and death eventually ensues.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuru_(disease) (Emphasis added)

In this context it is interesting to note that:
Bones and other tissues from over 20,000 corpses in Australia — and some in Papua New Guinea — were removed from 1957-1979 to test for strontium-90 arising from the atomic tests. No permission was sought from relatives for the removal of body parts. The tests — which did indeed reveal the presence of strontium-90 from atomic blasts — were initiated by the safety committee after it learned of Marston’s findings about widespread contamination.https://www.greenleft.org.au/node/31465 (Emphasis added) And, of course, where there is strontium-90 there are other radionuclides, like plutonium, etc. See also, for the USA: “Documentary Update on Project Sunshine ‘Body Snatching’: ‘The transcript records a January 18, 1955 ‘Biophysics Conference’ convened by the DBM to discuss the Gabriel-Sunshine program in light of the hydrogen bomb testing that was taking place in the Pacific. At the onset of the meeting, DBM director Bugher explained that the hydrogen bomb tests in the Pacific required an acceleration of the research program: (Tr.3)….The meeting was then turned over to Dr. Libby, who was now an AEC Commissioner…’So human samples are of prime importance and if anybody knows how to do a good job of body snatching, they will really be serving their country.” http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/radiation/dir/mstreet/commeet/meet15/brief15/tab_d/br15d2.txt (Emphasis added)

We found some additional materials dealing with neurological disease in Australian aboriginals, as well as radiation experiments on them and on people from Papua New Guinea, which could be relevant, and are definitely of general importance.
THIS POST IS ONGOING AND CONTINUES HERE: https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/2014/04/10/radioactive-reindeer-chernobyl-guinea-pigs-part-viii-of-a-series/ . This is basically a learning or review series. There will be sometimes technical, sometimes not so technical things.

Due to the fierce urgency of educating the public about the dangers of nuclear power, before the nuclear lobby and its minions destroy humanity and the earth, we are currently unable to handle comments. So, we apologize not only for any errors found by our readers in the past, but we also apologize in advance for future errors. We try our best, but are mortals, unlike the nuclear lobby who think they are radiation-proof immortals. We may allow comments again in the not too distant future, or maybe not, as we are very behind in posting. When we say nuclear power, we include the dangers of mining and waste, as well. With no nuclear power there will be no new mining and no new waste. Then, in an intelligent, educated way, everyone must take care of the waste properly. It is NOT by denying the dangers and diluting and dumping the radioactive waste, that the problem is solved!