agroforestry, Convention Miniere Haiti, environment, environmental consequences mining in Haiti, environmental devastation, food self sufficiency Haiti, gold mine in Haiti, Haiti, Haiti agriculture, Haiti Mining, Haiti Mining Convention, Majescor, Mining Conventions, mining in haiti, SOMINE, St Genevieve
Surface mining requires clearance of trees, people, and animals from Haiti’s hills, mountains and even valleys. Instead of replacing the people with sheep, as in the Scottish Highland Clearances, they will simply strip the earth bare. The area which Majescor/SACG-SOMINE, SA has under mining permits is huge (450km2) and the first 50km2 is starting up operations soon, if it is not stopped, but it is only a drop in the bucket of the total amount of land, which is targeted for stripping and mining. Majescor/SACG-SOMINE has 1.6% of national territory under permit, out of a total of 20% to 23% of Haitian land under permit to mining companies at this time (this excludes petroleum companies and quarries). Compare these percentages to the Grasberg Mine in Papua, Indonesia, one of the largest in the world, where .03% of Papua district is being mined and holds probable future resources and .63% is under exploration. Additionally, the Haiti properties are largely contiguous in the north of the country. Article 36.5 of the Haitian Constitution (1987) says that the right of property ownership does not extend to mines and quarries, which, in practice, means that the Haitian State determines the fate of everyone and everything living on the surface.
SOMINE, SA (Societe Miniere du Nordest) holds one of only two Mining Conventions signed in recent years (2005). This Convention included a 50km2 research permit for Blondin-Douvray-Dos Rada and Faille. [The other Convention was signed with Citadelle, SA for Morne Bossa (50 km2) and for Grand Bois (50 km2)]. Hence, SOMINE, SA is well-advanced in moving toward mining exploitation. The SOMINE and Citadelle Mining Conventions total 150 km2 or 37,066 acres, which is already larger than the 24,700 acres (100km2) of the Grasberg mine currently mined, combined with that holding future probable resources (Block A).
Now, the coming mines will be surface mines, at least initially, and by definition will remove all vegetation from the area and hence contribute to deforestation, landslides, as well as most probably poisoning soil, aquifers, and rivers with cyanide or arsenic, sulfuric acid, lead, other heavy metals, copper, etc. and possibly uranium, thorium, and creating water shortages. Mining and smeltering operations will pollute the air. Additionally, they will most probably change the pH of the soil and water. This means that after mining operations cease that the earth will be unfit to sustain most life, without costly restoration projects (required by both the 1976 Mining Law and the 2005 Environmental Law, at the expense of the exploiting company, but environmental bonding is needed to make certain this is done).
Mining violates the Haitian Constitution (1987), which clearly states in Title IX, Ch. II, Article 253 that “The Environment being the natural framework of the life of the population, practices likely to perturb the ecological equilibrium are formally prohibited.” The 2011 Constitutional Amendments reinforce this by adding Article 253.1, which calls for extraordinary means to reestablish the ecological equilibrium, as long as forest cover is under 10%. The Constitution clearly must supersede the 1976 Mining law, especially as it postdates the Mining Law. Furthermore, the mining would seem to violate the International Convention against Desertification and the International Convention for Biodiversity to which Haiti is signatory. Mining violates the related 2005 Haitian Law on the Environment and Sustainable Development in multiple ways, including priorities of water use. The mines also violate the commitment to clean water and to the environment expressed by President Martelly in his recent speech at the United Nations, as well as his commitment to farmers and food security and exports, declared during the election campaign. The mines also run counter to President Martelly’s former post of Ambassador for Protection of the Environment and Prevention of Disasters. Furthermore, surface mining goes against the whole tenor of Haitian law from 1864 to this day, which has continually underscored the importance of soil and forest conservation, especially for the prevention of landslides. Under the 1976 Haitian Mining Law and under the 2005 Law on the Environment and Sustainable Development, mining sites are supposed to be restored to their previous pre-mining state. Under the law, the financial responsiblity for land restoration falls upon the mining companies, but the Haitian State needs to require adequate environmental bonding to ensure that this is done, in the event the company declares bankruptcy or leaves the country. We call upon President Martelly to uphold his commitment and that of the Haitian State to the environment.
Due to tropical and island location, mountainous conditions and complex geology, the cost of restoration may be especially high. In fact, if the cited $20 billion of mineral wealth is correct, we believe that the cost of restoring the mining areas properly will exceed whatever amount large or small the Haitian government will receive. Based on permits currently held by Majescor/SACG-SOMINE, VCS Mining, and Eurasian-Newmont, eventually, around 5,424 km2 (i.e. 542,400 ha/1,340,300 acres), or 20% of Haiti may be surface mines. This number could be higher or lower in the end. We believe that it would cost at least $20.1 billion to restore this amount of land. This does not include water purification, which is costly (around $1 million per km2 per year, i.e. $5.4 billion per year) and could be for perpetuity (i.e. 100 to 2,000 years), especially if the land is not properly restored (1).
It is important to notice that the SOMINE, SA property is crossed by the Trou du Nord River itself, as well as two upstream major tributaries (Riviere Fraiche, Riviere Cabaret) and minor tributaries, which empty into Caracol Bay. Trou du Nord River watershed is an important and a “high priority watershed.” Hence, the mining on the SOMINE property endangers a high priority watershed, Haiti’s longest uninterrupted coral reef, and an important Mangrove at Caracol Bay (Prime Minister Lamont says he cares about Mangroves). The Mangroves help to protect the Caracol Bay area from hurricane, and earthquake induced tidal surges. Additionally, the water shortages created by mining may cause water shortages for the Caracol Industrial Park and increased incursion of saline water into the aquifer.
The areas under mining contracts are in the Caribbean Biological Corridor (CBC). The CBC was formed “as a framework for biodiversity, conservation, environmental rehabilitation and development of livelihood options” and covers Haiti, the western Dominican Republic, and the eastern tip of Cuba. It is funded at $4 million by the EU/UNEP. This is but one of multiple public and private projects promoting the protection of biodiversity within the area. Mining literally and figuratively undermines these efforts. The CBC is one of 25 biodiversity “hotspots”. Although they cover only 1.4% of the earth’s surface, these hotspots have 44% of earth’s plant species and 35% of the world’s vertebrates, according to the CBC.
The mining operations will require clearance of people, domestic animals and wildlife, and farmland. In a nation where the majority live in the countryside, and there is already a shortage of agricultural and forested land, the people will probably not find replacement land and have to move to urban slums. The average land holding is about one hectare and so around 542,400 families will lose their land and homes. Still more people will lose access to food and clean water. There has been no talk of all of these people or if and how they will be compensated. Where will they go? They are not welcome in America, Canada or Australia, as the Scottish Highlanders were. They do not own property in the US, Canada, or Jacmel like those Haitians spear-heading and profiting from the SOMINE project. Nor has there been talk of the wildlife, who will have no place of refuge and die. These animals (and plants), some of which occur only in Haiti and the Dominican Republic; some only in Haiti itself, include endangered species. According to some counts, Haiti has, for instance, 2,000 vertebrate species of which 1,500 are endemic (occurring in Haiti and sometimes the Dominican Republic). None of this can be restored at any price, even if site restoration eventually occurs. No one is talking of these precious plants and animals nor of the people losing their homes. We need to start talking.
Most risk assessments follow insurance traditions of making the value of a life its earnings potential. Is your life only the value of your income? Are you more? What is the value of an animal? Its sales price? What is the value of food which is safe to eat and water which is safe to drink, for you and your children? Are the trees, people, animals of Haiti of less value than the owners or investors of the mining companies, simply because they have less income or none at all? A subsistence farmer grows food and does not need as much cash money. Is a life only valued in money? We believe that life is something more and that none of what is lost with the mining can be replaced at any price. Nonetheless, we will point out that a dairy cow produces milk that a farmer can sell for about 212 gourdes, whereas the per day new minimum wage is 200 gourdes (about $4.75). If one must buy milk in the store, the price is listed now at about 120 gourdes per liter or about $10.81 per gallon (in Cap Haitien). A cow sells at $450 to $600 or 30% to 40% of the annual minimum wage of $1,475. The cost of one and a half liters of water (recommended daily intake) is about $2.77 or over half the daily wage. Will Haitians be able to afford to pay half of their daily income on imported bottled water to drink, when the rivers and aquifers are poisoned? Cholera can be boiled out of water. Pollution cannot.
The total potential value of mineral wealth (we assume, perhaps falsely, that this excludes oil, gas and quarries) is cited in the media and by President Martelly as $20 billion, or an average of $1 billion per year for 20 years. Also, what is this $20 billion? The wholesale or retail value of the gold, silver, and copper? Is it proven reserves, hypothetical “probable” resources or “inferred” “potential” resources? The 2.5% royalty rate discussed by media and the president, does not appear in the 1976 or 1968 Mining Law. The 1976 Mining Law states that financial terms appear in the Mining Convention signed with the company, and that they may be changed. Barrie (2009) of Majescor says that the 2.5% appears in the Ste-Genevieve (now SOMINE) Mining Convention. This covers 50km2. At the end of September, President Martelly said that they may draft a new mining law within 6 months, which would raise the royalty to between 9% and 12%. This new royalty system will most likely be based on net profit, in contrast to the 2.5% based on sale of dore. Peru just changed from royalty based on gross sales to one based on net profits. They could thus raise the royalty rate and still end up receiving less! So, beware, be vigilant, this 9 to 12% may not really be as good as it sounds!
Of critical importance is the question of 2.5%, or 9% to 12% royalty on what? That’s the big and important question! Net or gross profits? All sales? Value? Sales of what? Value of what? “Dore”? Copper “Cathode”? “Concentrate”? “Powder”? After refining by an accredited or non-accredited refinery? Even the meanings of once clear terms like gross profit, severance tax, and royalty seem to have changed. We now have terms like “adjusted” gross profit, which seems closer to or the same as net profit. “Cost of sales”, processing and transport costs, etc. are also often removed out of “sales”. Severance and royalty can now be on net profit rather than on total value. It is very important and Haitians must watch and be vigilant! (Those Haitians who wrote the 1968 Haitian Mining Law were attentive and vigilant). It could seem that Haiti gets more royalties, when they could actually get less! According to Barrie (2009), the SOMINE Mining Convention stipulates 2.5% on “dore.” From what we have read, dore, being a mixture of metals, and perhaps processed elsewhere, allows ample room for manipulation. The value of the dore would be based on its mixture and purity, which must be evaluated. Who verifies the content of the “dore” mix? If processing is done elsewhere this cost could be subtracted. Also, are shipping and sales costs subtracted or not? Is it net value or total? Nonetheless, dore should assure some income for the country, in contrast to royalties based purely on net profit. Except, unless? SOMINE properties are predominantly copper. When they say “dore” do they include copper, which is normally made into “cathode”? Or, do they mean only the very limited gold and possible silver on the SOMINE property, and that they will pay no royalty on the more abundant copper?
Basing royalties on Net Profits is a huge gamble. Although, we have found no international statistics, those for Australia show that almost half of Mining Companies declare no profit. Now, it doesn’t take much knowledge of Mathematics to see that 12% of nothing is nothing! The international average of net profits, for the largest mining companies, before income tax is 33%. After tax it is 24.4%. However, studies in Australia have indicated that smaller mining companies tend to make less profit. Attention needs to be paid to the 1968 Haitian Mining Law, which Victor (1995) implies could be legally argued as still having application (see p. 143 regarding “abrogation tacite”). It should be studied and applied to new Mining Conventions. Something similar, maybe even stronger, should be put into any new law. This 1968 law, which may still be legally binding, in part, states in Article 47 that Royalties (“Redevances”) should be calculated by the net profit of the exploitation at a rate that can NOT be inferior to 20% of the sales price of the extracted minerals or of sales of transformed product (e.g. dore), if transformation or treatment occurs before its expedition. It furthermore says that above and beyond royalties and other taxes that 40% income tax on profits must be paid by the mining companies. Article 48 says that the landowner must get at least 10% of whatever the state gets paid in royalties. Nonetheless, the 1987 Haitian Constitution clearly stipulates, in Chapter II “Fundamental Rights” Article 36.6, that profits should be equitably shared between property owner, the Haitian State and the Company. Additionally, Article 75 of the 1968 Mining Law says that crops destroyed must be paid for and if the land cannot be used for more than a year it must be bought at twice its previous value. The 1976 Mining Law, Article 68, says that mining companies must agree on indemnization with both the occupant of the property and the landowner before they proceed with any work on the property (this appears to include prospecting). If expropriation is required, then the permit holder is responsible for paying all indemnities and costs. By all accounts, however, the mining companies just show up and start poking around people’s land in Haiti. This seems both poor manners and a violation of the law.
For the sake of argument, let us assume that the much discussed 2.5% royalty is for all of the $20 billion copper, gold, and other metals mined over 20 years, then that would be $500 million total for the Haitian State or $25 million per year (An examination of the history of gold and other metals will reveal that an increase in price over 20 years is not a given, but rather prices can fall dramatically). Importantly, the gold, which is at Faille, could run out in anywhere from 77 days to 5 years, with the copper of Douvray lasting for an estimated 20 years, and Blondin, 12 years, based on BME estimated tonnage. So, these are averages. If the royalty is raised to 12%, it is pretty certain that it would be 12% of net profits, which is generally considered more risky than sales of dore/cathode. Net profits are dependent upon variations in the price of oil, as well as on the price of gold and other factors. However, assuming the average 33% profit before income tax, 12% royalty on net profits would give the Haitian state as much as $39.6 million per year for 20 years ($792 million total), but nothing at all if the mining companies declare no profit. If the mining companies in Haiti average 20% net profit, and Haiti charges 12% royalties on net profit, then this would be $24 million per year ($480 million total) – less than 2.5% on dore. There is of course, income tax, but we believe that under the 2002 Investment Act that the mining companies will not pay income tax for 15 years and pay an increasing amount between the 15th and 20th year. Only in the 21st year is full tax paid. The corporate income tax would be 30% of profit or about $99 million dollars per year for 20 years ($1.98 billion total), which is close to the one third share of profits required in the Haitian Constitution. In a very optimistic outlook where Haiti might charge income tax plus 12% royalty, they may get, on average, $125 million per year for 20 years ($2.5 billion total). If they get only 12% Royalty on net profits, without income tax, then they may get about $39.6 million per year ($792 million total), but, then they could get nothing at all, unless some minimum Royalty based on sales is included, as in the case of the 1968 Mining Law. (2)
Compare to $242 million of agricultural losses for “only” 81km2 (8100 ha) due to hurricane Isaac, which on the 5,424km2 would correspond to $16 billion, which should help you start to see the financial value of the losses to agriculture caused by surface mining. Agriculture does not glitter like gold and so we tend to underestimate its value. The current value of Haiti producing its own food (i.e. food security) is at least $1.55 billion per year saved on food imports. However, only half of Haiti’s food is imported. Losing 20% of Haiti’s land area to mining would mean an additional 20% or $310 million worth of food imports or more, making the import tab $1.86 billion per year. Because the mining will most surely poison waterways and aquifers, the cost in food imports and to food security will certainly be higher as non-mined areas are impacted. Promoting agriculture and food self sufficiency over 20 years, rather than destroying 5,424 km2 of land with mines, would be worth at least $72 billion saved on imports or almost four times the alleged mineral wealth. And, unlike mining, the revenue potential of land for agriculture continues well beyond 20 years. We cannot underline enough that the destruction caused by 20 years of mining will probably last 100 to 2,000 years or more. The value of 5,424 km2 or 20% of Haiti, over 200 years, in preventing food imports can be estimated as $1.2 quadrillion or $1,200 trillion. The SOMINE properties (200km2) will account for $44 trillion of this. Agriculture also creates many jobs in farming and food transformation. Agroforestry using avocados, mangos, and other fruit trees, helps both to achieve food security and to prevent landslides. Simply becoming milk independent is worth over $2 billion over 20 years, since Haiti spends $40 to 50 million on milk imports per year.
Additionally, we would like to point out, that in the context of US Senate bill 1023, “Haiti Reforestation Act of 2011”, the US taxpayer may be spending $1.24 billion from 2013 to 2017 on reforestation and preventing deforestation in Haiti. That $1.24 billion could be more than the Haitian government receives from the mining operation, if the much-cited $20 billion precious metals is correct. This $1.24 billion excludes all of the money given by other countries, groups, churches and NGOs, and previous money given by the US government to prevent deforestation, and to help with reforestation and the environment. It excludes all of the monies spent by the entire world to help Haitians with agriculture, animal husbandry, and fish farming. As well, the Haitian government may be left with $20.1 billion, or more, restoration costs, if they do not charge environmental bonding. Since the Haitian government will not have the $20.1 billion, without bonding, or outside donations, Haiti risks being left with a devastated environment.
Moving back to our first case: Majescor/SACG-SOMINE, SA is asking for its 50 km2 Research Permit to be converted into one (1) 25 km2 Mining EXPLOITATION permit covering Blondin-Douvray-Dos Rada copper system, which includes the Douvray copper-gold prospect and one (1) 20 km2 (or 25km2) Mining EXPLOITATION permit covering the Faille B gold-copper prospect (Their 2012 Audited Financial report says two 25 km2 exploitation permits, rather than 25km2 plus 20km2, which appears most places). Additionally, Majescor/SACG-SOMINE has done soil sampling/prospecting over four (4) Prospecting Permits covering 100 km2 EACH and lying to the East, South, and Southeast of the original 50km2 subject to the Mining Convention. So currently, they control 1.6% of Haiti and 25% of the Northeast Department (there may be some impingement upon the Northern Department). Although the exploitation permits appear to still be pending, as of this date, they seems imminent. In addition to wanting their 50km2 research permit converted to an EXPLOITATION permit, they have requested that three (3) of their four (4) 100 km2 Prospecting permits be converted to the next stage of Research Permits, which are 50km2 each (i.e. three 50 km2 plots) or 150 km2. By law, prospecting permits are of a maximum of 100 km2 each and subsequent research permits are a maximum of 50km2. Thus, they will reduce their Haitian territorial “control” from 450km2 to 200 km2, at least temporarily. When the mine enters exportable commercial production, or is a Mining Concession, SOMINE, SA itself, can legally hold only 100km2. However, this probably simply means that new Haitian companies or subsidiaries will be created (if they do not already exist) in order to hold more concessions. Prospecting permits are limited to 100km2, but the various companies are simply getting multiple permits for prospecting. Thus, it seems that the total to be mined, by SOMINE, SA, will initially be approximately 200km2 or almost one percent (.7%) of Haiti’s national territory and 11% of the size of the Northeast Department. Majescor states that all technical and source documents to support their applications have been filed with Haiti’s Bureau of Mines (BME). Under Haitian Mining law, it seems that this conversion of prospecting to research permits would require SOMINE to sign a New Mining Convention, although update of the existing one may be all that is required. Either way proper negotiations and official publication in the Moniteur are required to make it legal for them to hold additional research permits.
In the SOMINE Technical Document, C. T. Barrie (2009), calls “the alluvial plain on the North side of the main mountain range” (i.e. Perches Mountains) an “example” of “suitable places for potential tailing storage and for waste disposal areas (p. 20)”. It is important to know that due to heavy rain, in the neighboring Dominican Republic, the Pueblo Viejo Mine’s new tailings pond already ruptured during construction last year. Heavy rainfall, and high seismic risk would make risk of tailings dams rupture high. In fact, Faille, means “fault” suggesting the possibility of a small faultline in the proximity. Earthquakes, as small as 4.8, have caused tailings dam ruptures. The Majescor-SOMINE, SA property is also at the headwaters of the Trou du Nord River, which is considered a high priority aquifer for protection, and which empties into the Caracol Bay Mangrove forest estuary. This includes at least 13 endangered species. The mine will put these resources in jeopardy.
So, just how much land are the 50 km2 (19.3 sq miles) Blondin-Douvray-Dos Rada and Faille Permit area? It is 5,000 hectares or 12,355 acres! However, the Blondin-Douvray-Dos Rada and Faille prospects are but a small part of what Majescor/SOMINE (and other companies) will strip naked of trees and other vegetation. Majescor/SOMINE has prospected in four surrounding 100 km2 areas, which they wish to turn into research permits of 150km2. This will mean a total of 200 km2, 77.22 sq miles, 20,000 ha, 49,421 acres or 11% of the Nordest Department. The average land holding in Haiti is one hectare, so this would remove, on average 20,000 families. And, this is only the start. This area has both high density vegetation and is food secure, according to the Famine Early Warning system (FEWS)(see maps at bottom). Why would we want to destroy that with mines, which will only last from an estimated 77 days to 20 years, while leaving devastation in their wake?
Haiti’s area, including islands and water is 27,750 km2 or slightly bigger than the state of Massachusetts which is 27,536 km2. However, Haiti’s Main land mass is 26,535 km2 (10,245 sq miles). Compare to “tiny” Switzerland whose land area is 39,770 km2. Lichtenstein at 160 km2 is barely larger than the newly requested research permit. Montserrat is 102km2 (39 sq. miles) or approximately the size of a Haitian Mining Prospection Permit (100km2) area. Bermuda with 45 km2 (21 sq. miles) is comparable in area to 50 km2 research and exploitation permits. Compare the 195 to 200km2, which Majescor-SOMINE wants to mine, to the country of Aruba (193km2) and American Samoa (199km2). Until the 1848 Revolution, Monaco had 45km2 of land, but after the peasants revolted, they had only 2km2 and had to turn to gambling, tourism, and banking to survive: environmentally, these are better options for Haiti than mining. These mines are not only a huge chunk of a tiny country, but even the smallest permits are much larger than some countries. Also compare the Haitian mining permits to the Grasberg mine, one of the largest in the world, whose Block A is 24,700 acres or 100 km2. Grasberg’s Block A holds proven and probable reserves. Exploration occurs in Block B of Grasberg, which is 500,000 acres or 2,023 km2. Block A is only 3/100ths of one percent (.03%) of the area of Papua, Indonesia. Block A and B combined are only 6/10ths of one percent (.63%) of Papua, Indonesia.
According to Majescor, the Research Permit associated with the first 50km2 Mining Convention expired on June 22, 2012, and on the 21st they filed two “non-NI compliant” technical reports to Haiti’s BME (Bureau of Mines and Energy). Non-NI compliant seems to refer to the Canadian NI-43-101 standard. Barrie (2009) says they are supposed to be following Canadian mining standards under Haitian law (p.18). But, according to the 1976 Haitian Mining Law, “International Standards” should be followed, especially regarding protection of the environment, security etc. The purpose of NI-43-101 compliance is to objectively verify findings, so as to prevent stock securities fraud (financial scams). Hence, this standard should be important for Majescor, under Canadian law, to prove that investors are not being defrauded. We note that the US Securities and Exchange Commission Industry Guide 7 for Mining is more strict for declaration of findings than Canada’s NI-43-101. Thus, it would appear that the technical reports given to the BME are below the required international standards.
We find it odd that C.T. Barrie, who did the original NI-43 compliance study in 2009, now serves on Majescor’s board of directors, and as such is recipient of Majescor shares (he was appointed to the board after study completion). Although the study is useful and interesting (though sometimes incorrect, contradictory, and repetitive), this seems unethical and to undermine the intent of NI compliance. Was this study thrown out on ethical grounds? We find everything related to this unclear. A cursory examination of mining companies shows that they are often interlocked in various ways (In fact, Majescor is interlocked with Everton and perhaps other mining companies). Since those competent enough to act as “qualified persons” for NI-43-101 would likely know each other and be “colleagues” or interlocked through the mining companies, it would appear that objectivity for NI-43-101 would be difficult. However, the “qualified person” is supposed to be legally responsible if they approve a misleading study.
Majescor-SOMINE were supposed to submit new NI-43-101 compliant reports by this Fall (one source said October), but now only mention that they still lack an NI-43-101 resource estimate for the initial property, for which they are requesting the EXPLOITATION permit. Majescor argued that their technical reports fulfilled their “obligations under the Mining Convention” and wanted their 50 km2 SOMINE Research Permit converted to one (1) 25 km2 Mining EXPLOITATION permit covering Blondin-Douvray-Dos Rada copper system which includes the Douvray copper-gold prospect and one (1) 20 km2 (or 25km2) Mining EXPLOITATION permit covering the Faille B gold-copper prospect and “host shear structure”. (The EXPLOITATION permit becomes a MINING CONCESSION at the start of commercial mining.) According to Majescor, “under the terms of the Mining Convention (article 17) and conditional upon SOMINE, SA honouring other provisions set out in the Mining Convention, and upon receiving the 2 technical reports, the BME has 30 days to issue the 2 mining exploitation permits…” Have they upheld the terms of the agreement? Since we, like most, have not seen the Convention, we cannot tell. However, since the Convention was made under a government put into place after the removal of Haiti’s democratically elected president, we imagine that the terms were not severe. Nonetheless, according to Majescor, the Haitian government BME announced on July 19, 2012 that it dissented with Majescor-SOMINE’s opinion and that it wanted follow-up of articles 9.3, 17, 26.3 and 26.5 of the Mining Convention. Majescor says that on July 27, 2012, a first meeting was held and AECOM was asked to revisit the technical studies done for SOMINE. They also state that meetings were held from August 29th to October 2nd, where revised sections of technical reports were presented to the BME. There was discussion of “Selected other components of the technical studies”. They further say that after the October 2nd meeting that “SOMINE SA has filed the final updated technical and source documents in support of its application for the two Mining Exploitation Permits with the BME”. However, the permits were still pending on Oct. 9th. And, as mentioned above they state that they have not finished their NI 43-101 “Resource Estimates” for the property for which they want the EXPLOITATION Permit!
Majescor of Canada controls about 76.43% in the SOMINE SA project in Haiti mostly via its 100% control of SIMACT Alliance Copper and Gold (SACG). So, just who owns the remaining 23.57% of SOMINE? This remains a mystery.
SOMINE, SA holds a research permit for 50km2 of mineral rights and obligations, first obtained under a Mining Convention between the Haitian State and Ste-Genevieve, SA, approved in October 1996 and signed February 3, 1997. The Convention was renewed through decret on March 9, 2005 and the decret was published in the Moniteur on May 5, 2005 and is alleged to last to March 9, 2020. This Convention was signed under the Gerard La Tortue government, put into place after the democratically elected President Aristide was removed for the second time (Feb. 29, 2004). A similar Convention decree was signed with Citadelle, SA in March of 2005. Both decrees related to the Conventions are found on former “Prime Minister” Gerard La Tortue’s web site. There are no details given of these Conventions other than some dates; names of the Haitian companies and their representatives; government officials, and names of the properties involved. According to the BME, five prospecting permits covering 450 km2 in the NorthEast of Haiti were given to the Canadian Company Ressources St-Genevieve, Limitee on May 10, 1995 (The Haitian company which signed the Mining Convention and became SOMINE was Societe Miniere Ste-Genevieve – Haiti). The first permit was for the regions of Douvray and of Faille, which the Haiti BME website document “Memento pour l’Histoire” noted for 1995 “should be the object of negotiation in view of the signing of a [mining] convention.”
Note that while foreign companies are allowed to prospect they are not allowed to participate in the later stages. The Ste-Genevieve (now SOMINE, SA) Mining Convention of 2005 was signed about a year after Aristide was removed the second time. And, in fact an earlier Mining Convention was signed between Haiti and la Societe Miniere Citadelle for Grand-Bois and Morne Bossa, on Feb. 11, 1992, only months after the first coup d’etat against Aristide on October 31, 1991. It too was renewed on March 9, 2005. The Grand-Bois and Morne Bossa prospects are currently split between VCS mining and Eurasian-Newmont, but presumably within Haiti they are still held by Citadelle. If not they would appear illegal. Grand Bois and Morne Bossa Conventions apparently required 50/50 division of profits between the Haitian Government and the mining companies. But, 1/3rd should go to the landowner, under the 1987 constitution. All of this may be irrelevant, for we suspect, based on google maps and other information that the gold at Grand Bois and the first Morne Bossa is gone–a topic to be looked into later, in parts two and three.
Barrie (2009) of Majescor describes the 50 km2 area, for which they requested the EXPLOITATION PERMIT, as rolling terrain with tropical vegetation and elevations varying from 80 to 400 meters above sea level with “several small villages” with subsistence agriculture “with small fields on the hillsides and on the alluvial plains”. Which villages, mountains (mornes), and rural sections lie within the initial 50km2/19 sq miles (5,000ha/12,355 acres) permit area and hence are in immediate danger (and who may even have already been removed)? They are MATHELIER, BERCERA, MORN VERON, MORNE PERLE, BLONDINE, MEYAC, MORNE MEYAC, DUVRAY, DOUVRAY, MORNE DEVRE, BLONDIN, SAVANETTE, SAVANE POMME, MORNE MARIE JEANNE, DOS RADA, MORNE DOS RADA, FRAICHE, CABON, FAILLE, CABRIT, MORNE CABRIT, ROCHE PLATTE. Additional areas in the danger zone (rural sections?) are NAN PERLE, NAN COLLINE, SAVANE HAUT CHAMP, LA COURS MICHEL, GROS TROU, ROCHE PLATTE. The PERCHES mountains are at the center of the property. RIVIERE FRAICHE, an initial tributary to RIVIERE TROU DU NORD flows across the property. Barrie lists it as the only year-round water source (presumably due to the high volume of water needed for mining). But, in fact, according to the map on p. 13 of the Barrie document, two major tributaires (RIVIERE FRAICHE and RIVIERE CABARET) to the TROU DU NORD RIVER, as well smaller tributairies and part of the TROU DU NORD RIVER itself cross the property. He says that Annual precipitation is 750mm to 2500mm. Compare to 1519mm in Miami and 1369mm in New Orleans. This initial 50km2 will involve an estimated total displacement of at least 13,000 to 15,000 people and 100,000 farm animals, along with unknown numbers of wildlife, including unknown numbers of endangered species. It appears, as well, that JESUS may be in danger– part of the Village of Jesus, that is, which marks the northwest corner of the SOMINE property. Then again Jesus could be spared. It is not clear. A long time ago, I read or heard someplace that some Haitians think Haiti itself is like Jesus crucified.
The Convention map by Japosat Consultants, given on p. 13 (Figure 6-2) in Barrie (2009), has the following coordinates given in UTM (you may convert them in the mapping links given below in references, but must use N hemisphere, zone 19): 185000 E, 2175000 N; 189000 E, 2175000 N; 185000 E, 2170000N; 189000 E, 2170000 N; 190000 E, 2170000 N; 185000 E, 2164000 N; 190000 E, 2164000 N. These are different from the coordinates given within the Barrie (2009) text (p. 17), which uses zone 18. They result in slightly different latitude – longitude coordinates. Although we are not 100% certain which is correct, we are opting for using the map. The Convention map shows the communities, which will be affected by this first 50km2 exploitation, and the topography. But, with google maps you can see the houses and the vegetation, as it stood in 2010 and perhaps now 2012, as well as the topography.
While Milot is not in this quadrant, its peasants are said to be victims of expropropriations, although we do not know why. SIMACT has 220 acres of real estate, listed as divided between Milot and Acul du Nord. As well, the first Morne Bossa mine, listed as owned by VCS Mining, and subject to a mining convention, and where mining visibly has begun on Satellite Map, is located nearby. There is also the “Sans Souci” historic Palace site and there might be expulsions from the surrounding park.
Who is SOMINE, SA, SIMACT Alliance Copper and Gold (SACG), SIMACT, SIMACT Foundation? The roots (and apparent control) of the SOMINE property lie in the New York based Haitian expatriot Investment house SIMACT. SIMACT founded the Montreal based SACG (later bought by Majescor) in conjunction with Montreal “financiers”. Majescor-SACG hold majority shares of the Haitian Company called SOMINE,SA, owner of the SOMINE property. SIMACT also has a Foundation, which asks for donations for poor Haitian children. Now, why do we need to give well-heeled MDs, Bankers, Real Estate Developers and now Mining Investors money allegedly to help poor Haitian children?! This is truly bizarre and worrisome, but this is not the only mining company with ties to foundations asking for your money to help poor Haitian children! Be careful who you donate to. More bizarre is that the Clinton Bush Foundation is granting a loan to SIMACT to refurbish their Cap Lamandou hotel. Although Jacmel has a historic Hotel “La Florita”, which survived the earthquake, Cap Lamandou Hotel is not historic and was reportedly not damaged by the earthquake.
Jean Marie Wolff is CEO of SOMINE, SA and President of the Board of Directors since April 2012. He is also President of SIMACT Mining Holding since November 2006; he is CEO and President of the Board of Directors of SIMACT Tourism, Inc. since November of 2006. He is a Board Director for SIMACT Foundation. Mr. Wolff spent 20 years, from 1971 to 1991, as a Banker for Royal Bank of Canada, in both Port-au-Prince and New York. He also worked for Fleet Bank from 1992 to 1994, and was CEO of Radio Tropicale from 1994 to 1995. As well, he served on the Board of Representaction, whose Registered Agent and Chair was Dumarsais M. Simeus, along with Joseph Baptiste, DDS, of VCS mining and many others. Jean-Marie Wolff and Joseph Baptiste were both founding members of Promocapital Investment Bank. Promobank partnered with NOAH, a US NGO, founded by Joseph Baptiste of VCS mining, to create Promocapital Investment Bank. Promocapital was founded as a joint venture between members of the Haitian Expatriot Community, Promobank Haiti Shareholders and Haitien entrepreneurs and professionals. There were 70 founding partners and it was a 50-50 joint venture between shareholders located in the US and those in Haiti.
SOMINE SA (Societe Miniere du Nordest) is seemingly Ste-Genevieve of Haiti renamed. This is important because it means that SOMINE’s Mining Convention is probably legal. We have found that both Majescor and MVX (Maxtech) have had “issues” with SOMINE, SA — MVX when SOMINE was called Ste-Genevieve (see Majescor, Financial Statements Feb. 2012; Maxtech Ventures, 2012). So, is it any wonder if President Aristide allegedly had “issues” with Ste-Genevieve, if their mining partners have? SOMINE, SA does have a new CEO. A French Canadian president/CEO, Jacqueline Monfourny, was replaced by Jean-Marie Wolff of SIMACT in 2012 (there appears to have been another CEO between the two but we cannot find a name). We wonder how it is that SOMINE, SA, which is supposed to be a Haitian company domiciled in Haiti, in order to engage in mining in Haiti, had a French Canadian president domiciled in suburban Montreal and now a Haitian expatriot domiciled in New York City? Jean-Marie Wolff probably holds a secondary home in Haiti, however.
(Footnote 1) As for environmental bonding, we are following the average year 2000 bonding rate for the state of Montana, which was $14,948 per acre and was estimated to still be 10% to 20% less than the actual cost of restoring mined lands. Some may cite states like Kentucky, which have had bonds at $1,000 per acre. However, they have reclamation cost estimates, which run as high as $165,142 per acre. There are different levels of reclamation. There is securing the site against collapse and against leaking tailing dams. And, there are various degrees of putting the land and water back as it was before. Haitian law requires that it be restored to how it was. While this is impossible, it would have to be restored to the closest to how it was. Now, this will be a complex process and would seem to require hauling contaminated soil elsewhere and bringing in clean soil, among many other things. As Haiti is on a small island, hauling of soil would be by ship, we guess. We really think that $15,000 per acre would be a low figure, but assuming this figure, Majescor-SOMINE’s initial bond for the 50 km2 (12,355 acres) EXPLOITATION permit should be $185 million. If it is 45 km2 (11,120 acres) it would be $167 million. SOMINE needs to pay the Haitian government another $556 million bonding in conjunction with the 3 new research permits it is requesting, as well as the initial $185 million bond, if it has not been paid for a total of $741 million. The mining companies should be bonded first at a lower amount for the damage done in exploration and research, and secondly at a much higher amount for exploitation and mine operation. Now, if Majescor itself cannot afford this, perhaps the wealthy Haitians at SIMACT can step up to the plate. But, whoops, maybe it will have to be the Bush Clinton Fund, as they are giving a loan to SIMACT for renovating their hotel. And, in the end, the SOMINE, SA properties will likely be mined by large mining interests who can easily afford this bonding. Before, Majescor-SOMINE is given their EXPLOITATION permits, they should be bonded for the $185 million and additional amounts for their Research Permits, as the “research” damages land, as well.
(Footnote 2) We are clueless as to where the $20 billion figure found in the media comes from. We do not know if it is for some or for all of the properties. We do not know if this is proven reserves as per US reporting standards for the SEC or more hypothetical resources as recognized under the Canadian standards. Or, if it is just guess-work. According to the BME, the amount of probable gold in Faille is 115,013 tons of ore. Removing 1,000 to 1,500 tons of ore per day, which the BME suggests as the speed for other sites, this would last only between 77 and 115 days. Faille could, however, last up to 5 years, based on possible/hypothetical gold estimates provided by the BME. Morne Bossa should last (have lasted) 3 to 4 years. Contrary to what Barrie (2009, p. 45) alleges, the BME document speaks of “probable” and “possible” (p. 20 pdf) amounts of gold at Faille and not “proven” and “suggested” as Barrie says. Copper tends to last longer with the Douvray/ Duvray reserves estimated to last 20 years (if they prove exploitable) and Blondin, approximately 12 years. But, a 1980 study indicated that the price of copper needed to be at least $2.50 USD per pound for it to be economic to mine. Copper now stands at about $3.70, but has its ups and its downs. Currently the price of oil is almost three times what it was in 1980, and fuel is one of the most important price inputs for mining. In general a lot of mining costs have increased in 22 years. However, we have read that there have been technological advances in the mining of copper. And, of course, figures can never be exact depending as they do upon vagaries of metals prices, which are at an all-time high and could suddenly deflate, profit margins (largely dependent on oil prices), unknown amount of metals in the ground, cheating, etc. ad nauseam. Because of investments and start-up costs there may be no profits declared for the first four to ten years, if at all, as well as no tax for the first 15 years. The much smaller, in area, neighboring mine of Pueblo Viejo has a $3.7 billion capital construction cost. Please note that the hypothetical amounts, which we give as the Haitian State’s part, are roughly generated and, as such, do not contain low income tax that will occur between years 15 to 20 of mine life, until full income tax kicks in at the 21st yr. Anyone wanting exact figures is welcome to make an Excel sheet to play around with. It also excludes a .20 cent per ton fee promised, according to Barrie (2009) in the context of the Ste-Genevieve Mining Convention (which may or may not be the case for others). According to Barrie (2009), SOMINE, SA was to give the Haitian government $1.8 million, within 18 months of receiving its research permit in 2005 and upon presentation of feasibility results. We do not know if this was paid or not. This amount was payment for the Haitian government giving SOMINE pre-existing studies. Under the Ste-Genevieve Mining Convention the company is said, by Barrie (2009), to be guaranteed a 15% rate return on mining. Barrie says that the income tax rate is 33% (see Barrie, 2009, pp. 17-19). This seems the 33.33%, which should come to the Haitian State under the Haitian Constitution. However, corporate tax rate is 30%. Presumably this and the 15% tax on dividends (mentioned by Barrie) can and most likely will be waved for 15 years under the 2002 Investment Law – if not on the 50km2, then on other properties. The Constitution says that there should be an equitable division of profits between landowner and mining company and the state. That is 33.33% each. Now, what of the landowner? Well, those farming and residing on the land are not necessarily the owners (though the 1976 Mining Law stipulates that occupants of the land should also be properly compensated). Due to lack of updated land registry/cadastre and high cost of filing a deed and the influence of the Napoleonic Code on land division (meaning forced inheritance to numerous heirs, as in Louisiana, and the constant subdivision of plots or many names on a title), we predict that most of the 33.33% belonging to the landowner will go for legal fees. The exception would be large landowners, “gran dons”, who can afford to file titles. This will also be costly for the state, which will found itself bogged down even further in title disputes. The 50/50 profit sharing between the State and Mining Companies, which has appeared in some news articles, was in the Convention for Citadelle’s properties of Morne Bossa and Grand Bois, but under the Constitution could only occur for state-owned lands. However, the Haitian state is said to be not even certain of its land holdings and 50% of profits is the maximum of taxes, royalties, etc., which it is allowed by law to charge a company. Barrie/Majescor (2009, p. 17) cites 50 dollars as the amount to be paid the landowner. It appears a flat 50 dollars, for it does not specify if it is per hectare or per square kilometer. But, the Haitian Constitution says division of profit must be equitable and this certainly is not equitable.
REFERENCES AND FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
[NB: description not necessarily title of document]
Conversion Site from UTM to Latitude, Longitude
Need to use Zone 18 or 19, as given, and Northern Hemisphere
Other mapping sites
Famine Early Warning System Maps
POPULATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE NORTHEAST DEPARTMENT:
Haitian Population Estimates, 2009 (French)
“Elements de Problematique Departementale du Nordest” (1997)
(most in French: Beware English translations online are not necessarily accurate):
1987 Constitution (French)
See especially Title I, Article 36.6 and Title IX, Ch. II, Article 253
Moniteur 13 Mai 2011 re Amendments of 1987 Constitution
See the new 253.1 which calls for extraordinary means to reestablish ecological equilibrium as long as forest cover under 10%.
Moniteur June 2011 Amendments of 1987 Constitution (see p. 19)
Mining Law 1976 Haiti (French)
There must be agreement with landowner and those occupying the property on compensation and use of land before any exploration, or exploitation is done; must be at least 50 meters from villages and other properties, etc.
2005/2006 Law regarding Environment and Sustainable Development
Le Moniteur No. 11 – Jeudi 26 Janv. 2006 (additionally prohibits construction obstructing beaches and waterfronts).
Environmental Code Haiti, Jean Andre Victor. (French)
Gerard La Tortue’s documents from his tenure as “Prime Minister”:
2005 Decret regarding the Mining Convention with Citadelle, SA for Grand Bois, Morne Bossa http://gerardlatortue.org/bpm/pdf/decrets/CitadelleSA.pdf
2005 Decret regarding the Mining Convention with Ste. Genevieve re Douvray, Blondin, Faille (note apparent typo which includes Grand Bois) http://gerardlatortue.org/bpm/pdf/decrets/decret_saintegenevieve.pdf
Minimum wage law for export sector (French) (N.B. pay is based on piece-work and very minimum is 200 gourdes or approximately $4.75 USD; the company is supposed to price piecing such that 300 gourdes can be achieved.
Center for the Facilitation of Investment Haiti
Minimum wage law explained:
Le Nouvelliste. Le Salaire Minimum passe a 200 gourdes dans la sous-traitance, le 1er octobre
2002 Investment Law (English)
2002 Loi Portant sur le Code des Investissments (French)
“AP Interview: Haiti PM see mining law draft in 6 months could set royalties at 9 percent” Washington Post. Sept 26, 2012. http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/ap-interview-haiti-pm-sees-new-mining-law-draft-in-6-months-could-set-royalties-of-9-percent/2012/09/26/b44db5ca-080a-11e2-9eea-333857f6a7bd_story.html
NI 43-101 Standards (Canada) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Instrument_43-101
US SEC Industry Guide 7
see p. 34 http://www.sec.gov/about/forms/industryguides.pdf
Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate, Senate Bill 1023:
Haiti Reforestation Act of 2011
BUREAU OF MINES/GEOLOGICAL STUDIES:
Haiti BME study for Northeast Department
BME: “Memento pour l’Histoire”
BME: “Chronologie du Secteur Minier Haitien de 1492 a 2000” (French)
(Chronology of the Haitian Mining Sector 1492 to 2000) Claude Prepetit 2000
C.E. Nelson et. al. “Metallogenic Evolution of the Greater Antilles”. Geologica Act, 9 (3-4), 229-264 (2011). Great maps of mining areas. Note that ore grades listed here for Douvray and Faille B are higher than those listed elsewhere.
“USGS 2009 Minerals Yearbook Dominican Republic and Haiti [Advance Release]”
Maxtech explains that Ste Genevieve Haiti (SGH) changed name to SOMINE and re stock problems between Maxtech and SGH, see p. 12: “Maxtech Ventures, Inc. Consolidated Financial Statements July 31, 2010 and July 31 2009”
Maxtech news Oct. 27, 2007 re investment in Societe Miniere Ste-Genevieve Haiti. http://www.maxtechventures.com/s/NewsReleases.asp?ReportID=334720&_Title=Maxtech-Increases-Investment-in-Ste.-Geneviv-Haiti-S.A.-to-US4000000
Maxtech Ventures, Inc Interim Financial Statement Jan 2012
see Section 7 “Long Term Investment” regarding Sainte-Genevieve Haiti problems in 2007, rectified by Simact Mining Holding on behalf of SGH in 2011 by transfer of Majescor Shares
“Majescor Resources, Inc. (MJX) Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements for the 3 months Ended May 31, 2012 (unaudited)”see esp. p. 7, the 5th p. 14/p. 12 (11c) re Haiti , p. 16
“Majescor Resources, Inc. Consolidated Financial Statements
Years ended Feb 29, 2012 and Feb. 28, 2011” (see esp. pp. 25-37)
Mining company reports found here
Investing Businessweek SIMACT Alliance Copper Gold (SACG)
Marketwire: Majescor aquires SACG, SOMINE (450km2)
Majescor March 2012, includes map of Mineral Deposits all over Haiti
Majescor (MJX) July 5, 2011
Mercenary Musings by Mickey Fulp, June 15, 2009 about
Eurasian Minerals, his relationship with EMX, EMX in Haiti
Everton Resources Interlocking Directorates with Majescor,
MJX’s Hachey revolving door with NASDAQ< AMEX< TSX, TSX-U
Majescor News Dec. 13, 2011 Acme Lab Chile; lists research permit request as 50km2 each.
Press Release St. Genevieve Resources of Montreal re Douvray, Blondin, Nicole (2004), p. 2
C.T Barrie and Associates, 2009, for Majescor. “Technical Summary Report SOMINE Property Haiti”
Reuters 2009. Majescor acquires SIMACT Alliance Copper Gold (SACG)
Majescor in Haiti by Richard Baduaskas http://www.proactiveinvestors.com/companies/news/11250/majescors-move-into-haiti-gives-company-a-shot-at-large-copper-gold-discovery-11250.html
Eurasian Minerals Corporate Update, March 2012, pp. 9-14 Haiti
Eurasian News Spotlight May 2012
Eurasian News April 2012
SIMACT a Golden Opportunity video
Clinton Bush fund Simact Hotel
link 1 http://www.clintonbushhaitifund.org/media/entry/investments-for-long-term-progress-in-haiti/
link 2 http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/29/international/americas/29haiti.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Barrick Pueblo Viejo Project
Dangers of using net proceeds; why (gross) severance tax needed
Origin of “Fairest Tax” Severance Tax on gross sales in Pennsylvania
Mining Agreements and Royalties
Hidden Aspects of the Gold Trade (see third section)
Discusses a silver gold dore mix
Royalty Rate Changes in Peru
Royalty Rates Queensland Australia
Pueblo Viejo Mine (capital costs $2.1 to 2.3 billion)
Glossary of Terms Mining Annual Reports
Mining, Risk, and Profit 2007 (mining company view)
Mining Profits 2010
Mining Profits fall 2011
Australia Mining Profit Margins 2009-10
Mineral Royalties And Other Mining Specific Taxes by Pietro Guj
Calculating Royalty example Peru (see p. 14)
US State Severance Taxes
Mining Profitability Australia
Price Waterhouse Cooper Mine 2012
Price Waterhouse Cooper Mine 2011 (see esp. p. 21 re profits)
Sales Income vs Gross Receipts
Discusses ways Mining Companies avoid declaring taxes p.2
2005/2006 Law regarding Environment and Sustainable Development
Le Moniteur No. 11 – Jeudi 26 Janv. 2006 (additionally prohibits construction obstructing beaches and waterfronts).
Environmental Issues for nearby Pueblo Viejo (by BRGM)
Prepetit (1996) “Exploitation des Ressources Minieres et Environnement
“Underground Water in Haiti” by Brown, John S., 1938 http://iahs.info/redbooks/a026/Sout_Q0_R9.pdf
National Geographic Magazine: “The Real Price of Gold”
by Brook Larmer, Jan. 2009 (see esp. starting p. 4)
Mining, Gold Production, Pollution and Impact
Mining Environmental Impact Assessment Guidebook
Dangers of Cyanide Use in Mining
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Cyanide
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Sulfuric Acid
Marcopper Mining disaster
Copper Mining and Production Waste (US EPA)
Barrick Mining Company on Copper Toxicity
Copper poisoning Ruminants
Uranium as mining byproduct
Air Pollution from Mining
Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Rosemont Mine in US (approximately 1,000 acres or 4km2)
Evans, Dave et. al. Aquifer vulnerability mapping in karstic terrain Atamina Mine Peru
Impact Papua Indonesia mining and resource exploitation
Kempton, et. al. (2010) “Policy guidance for identifying and effectively managing perpetual environmental impacts”
Kentucky plans to increase (environmental) bonds
Dominican Republic Pueblo Viejo, water will require treatment for at least 75 years
“Cumulative Impact Assessment for Regional Development in the Cap Haitien to Ouanaminthe Urban Corridor”, AIA, IDB, USAID/OTI
Aug 26, 2012 http://www.ute.gouv.ht/caracol/images/stories/docs/AI_CIA_Final_26-08-12.pdf
“Environmental Assessment of the USAID/Haiti North Park Power Project”
“Preliminary Hydrological Assessment for the Development of an Industrial Park in Haiti” by ENVIRON International Corp. for IDB,
“Water Resources Assessment of Haiti, August 1999, US Army Corps of Engineers
Smucker, Glenn et. al. (2007) “Environmental Vulnerability in Haiti: Findings and Recommendations”. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADN816.pdf
Smuck, Glenn et. al. (2006) “Vulnerabilite Environnementale en Haiti” http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADR457.pdf
When Aid does not help: Caracol
Various useful documents in English and French (Caracol site)
Feed the Future (USAID). Watershed Approach: Importance of soil conservation, watershed protection for agriculture (see esp. pp. 9-10)
Article about Caracol in New York Times (July 6, 2012)
Bloomberg Businessweek Article on Caracol Industrial Park
US statement to IDB re lack of completion of Environmental Impact Study for Caracol Bay and Industrial Park (Sept. 13, 2012)
Article on gold and the environment
Two Recent US cases Mining Pollution (air and water)
BIODIVERSITY AND ENDANGERED SPECIES:
Caribbean Biological Corridor EC/UNEP update, 3 August 2012
Convention on Biodiversity website Haiti
https://www.cbd.int/doc/world/ht/ht-nbsap-01-en.pdf (see pp.4-6)
Increased biodiversity on Islands
Haiti and Dominican Republic ecosystems and biodiversity
“Haiti Country Analysis of Tropical Forestry and Biodiversity”
Swartley and Toussaint (2006) USAID, US Forest Service (METI)
Endangered Species Haiti
List of endangered species (incomplete): some Haiti only, some Haiti and DR.
Two endangered mammals occurring only in Haiti-DR
1) Hispaniolan Solendon “Nez Long”; Solenodon Paradoxus, Paradoxus in the north of Hispaniola http://www.arkive.org/hispaniolan-solenodon/solenodon-paradoxus/video-06.html
Haitian Hutia/Hispaniolan Hutia
Part of unknown book about Haiti with information re Biodiversity, p. 322, 323
Haiti and Climate Change
FOOD SECURITY, SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE:
Caribbean J., opinion: “Durandis: An Injustice in Haiti’s Caracol”
“Policy Lessons from History and Natural Resource Projects in Rural Haiti” by White, T. Anderson, 1994 http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNABU097.pdf
Prices in Haiti 2010 “Cost of Inflation in Haiti” by K. Johnson
Price of Milk Cap Haitien
Price of Bottle Water
“Haiti’s poor resort to eating mud as prices rise” (2008) http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22902512/ns/world_news-americas/t/haitis-poor-resort-eating-mud-prices-rise/#.UGcVrNRhiK0
“Mud cakes and Milk” (Haiti microdairies) (2008)
“Milk Co-ops Help Hungry Haiti”
“Un autre modele pour le prix du lait: production et distribution locales elevent la marges des agriculteurs. Haiti le prouve”
(Another model for the price of milk: local production and distribution increase the [profit] margins of farmers. Haiti proves it) Philippe Galloy.
“Projet d’appui a la production et tranformation du lait en Haiti” discusses potential milk independence
“Colloque National sur la problematique des micro, petites et moyennes entreprises du secteur Agro-industriel en Haiti” (2007)
Brand Haiti: Let agogo more than a quality product made in Haiti
Haiti’s Agriculture Sector suffered 242 million damage from Hurricane
(81km2 area suffered the $242 million damage)
Agroforestry – Food assessment
“Bilan Alimentaire en Haiti 2009/2010”
“Agroforestry and Sustainable Resource Convervation in Haiti” by Nathan McClintock
The Fruit Tree Planting Foundation (FTPF)
Orchards for Animals (FTPF)
Impact of Droughts elsewhere on Haiti food prices
Sept. 30, 2012 Protest in Port-au-Prince against high prices and the government link 1)(Spanish)
link 2) (English)
Sept. 26, 2012 Video of Excellent and Inspiring Martelly Speech to the UN (French)
Lamothe says wants to protect mangroves and coastlines by eliminating plastic bags http://www.kansascity.com/2012/09/27/3836154/plastic-rivers-flow-through-haiti.html
“Haiti Under President Martelly: Current Conditions and Congressional Concerns” by Maureen Taft-Morales, August 1, 2012
Prepared for Members and Committees of US Congress, p. 15 discusses mining
Prime Minister Laurent Lamothe, Patrice Baker
link 1 see p. 4 http://licensing.fcc.gov/ibfsweb/ib.page.FetchPN?report_key=947380
link 2 http://globalvoicegroup.blogspot.ch/2011/11/mr-patrice-baker-succeeds-mr-laurent.html
JEAN MARIE WOLFF, SIMACT, PROMOCAPITAL, PROMOBANK, ETC.
Joseph Baptiste, NOAH, Promocapital
Promocapital various including Wolff and what seems probably PM Lamothe’s business partner Patrice Baker, along with Joseph Baptiste who is one on the Board of Directors of VCS Mining out of a total of 70 people. It also includes Promobank
Sanctions lists re those possibly involved in 1994 coup against Aristide
27 Oct. 1994 Sanctions removed after Aristide returned (includes Promobank)
Fed. Reg. Vol. 59, no 67, April 7, 1994 (explains lists; list only military)
June 2005 letter from Dumas Simeus, Chair of Simeus Food, Co-Chair of NOAH, Chair of Promocapital, USA, the Haitian American Investment Bank, asking President Bush to send US troops to Haiti (preceded by July open response letter to Mr. Simeus
Jean Marie Wolff’s ESP Realty Site New York City
SIMACT Foundation Board Members
NOAH, a US NGO partnered with Haiti Promobank to form Promocapital Investment Bank. NOAH Founder is Joseph Baptiste who serves on the board of VCS mining, whose main property is Morne Bossa Mine near Milot
MINING IN THE NEIGHBORING DOMINICAN REPUBLIC:
Everton 300km2 exploration Domincan Republic
Dominican Republic Project Tour
Dominican Republic Pueblo Viejo Impact tour
Discusses Haiti mining and the Dominican Republic’s Pueblo Viejo
Masters Thesis at U. of Sussex on Pueblo Viejo Mine
Huge Dominican Gold Mine to Open in Country Where Country Has Toxic Legacy
LINKS DEALING WITH LAND AREA OF COUNTRIES AND STATES:
MINING SECTOR AND UNIVERSITIES:
Examples of DIRECT Mining Co. Funding of University Professors-Research (see p. 10, Freeport McMoran) http://web.laregents.org/documents/RK%20LBOR-ECES%20final%20report.pdf
Loyola University, New Orleans, Chair Environmental Communication
McGill University (Epidemiology)
Examples of INDIRECT Mining Ties/Funding for University Research:
University of Montreal’s Center of Studies in International Research (CERIUM) and its funding Partners: www.cerium.ca/Partenaires
Some CERIUM partners related to mining
1) SNC Lavalin http://www.snclavalin.com/expertise.php?lang=en&id=12&sub=0
2) Affaires Etrangeres Canada/Foreign Affairs Canada
3) Ministre des Relations Internationales du Quebec
4) Ernst and Young
5) Davies Ward Phillips and Vineberg
6) Blake Cassels and Graydon
Jacques Fisette, coordinator of research on development, of CERIUM to help University of Haiti.
2004 Fisette listed as faculty specializing in decentralization at Universite d’Etat d’Haiti. This same directory proclaims the role that the university played in the “battle for the removal of President Aristide” (“lutte pour le depart de Jean-Bertrand Aristide”). Wow, students at this university fought to remove the democratically elected president! A triple take and verified elsewhere. Suggests the class nature of Haitian education. So many faculty from Montreal (U. of Montreal and INRS; perhaps others) that we had to do another triple take to make sure this was in Haiti and not Montreal. Some are perhaps there to warm up during Canadian winter.
Jacques Fisette in Haiti this summer 2012.
Jean-Francois Lisee, executive director of CERIUM (2004-2012) is from Thetford Mines, Canada
Thetford Mines http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thetford_Mines
Thetford Asbestos Mines Jan. 2012 Bankruptcy but may reopen!!!!
(they want to export to India and other countries!)
McGill U. Professor (Montreal) suggest using asbestos in rebuilding Haiti! http://crazymoor.wordpress.com/
Rotterdam Convention and Canada
Mining and Mineral Museum at Thetford Mines
Thetford Mines (Asbestos) is home of Lisee as well as Michaelle Jean, former Governor General of Canada and hence Commander of Chief of Canada Armed Forces (2005-2010). She spent childhood weekends and summers in her mother’s hometown of Jacmel (where SIMACT is so invested). As Governor General she temporarily shut down parliament, not once, but twice to stop the democratic removal of Prime Minister Stephen Harper.
Michaelle Jean’s visit to Goldcorp’s Porcupine Gold Mine (see p. 9) and the Mayor says that “Her message to us was … we need to talk more about how great mining is in the community.”
Goldcorp in Guatemala (Amnesty International; includes petition)
PM Stephen Harper announced creation of International Canadian Institute for Extractive Industries.
Harper and Mining Companies opinion piece
Opposition to Canadian Mining Companies Colombia
Countries of focus for Canadian International Development are Bolivia, Caribbean, Columbia, Haiti, Honduras and Peru
Canada has given more than $1 billion to Haiti (2006-12) making it the largest beneficiary of Canadian Development Assistance in the Americas
18 to 22 March 2012 Canadian Parlementarian Delegation to Haiti.
Discussed need for reforestation, but also want to update the Haitian Mining Law to ensure that the company gets 70% of profits rather than the 50% they cite