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Notice for those who have fallen upon this post while doing religious research:  While this post is about the road to Jesus, the village in Haiti, we would suggest to you that it is your duty, if you are religious, to look after “the least of these”.  And trying to stop the mining in Haiti in order to protect the poor peasant farmers, the animals and trees and plants, is certainly looking after “the least of these”, those who are unable to help themselves.  So, maybe finding this is no accident.  We propose that helping the helpless IS the road to Jesus.  Helping the helpless is certainly the road that he walked.

This particular post is about a mine or quarry along the Haiti National Road 6 between Terrier Rouge and Jesus.  It seems right on the edge of the Majescor-SOMINE property, under the 1997 Mining Convention.  It should be reported in Majescor’s documentation, whether it is on their property or on a surrounding property.  This is part of the property description that is supposed to be given.  Yet, we find nothing about it.  While someone has suggested that it is a quarry and we have yet to find documentation showing a mineral deposit in this exact spot, it does look like many mines.  And, quarries can also be environmentally devastating due to things like deforestation and acid rock drainage.  In this instance, topographic maps show that this was the only small hill along the side of this road.  And, this hill is pulverized.  It is no more.  It is crucified, dead and gone.  There will be no Easter resurrection for this hill (see pictures at bottom of page)

US Occupation (1915 to 1934) and the “Crucifixion” of Charlemagne Peralte in the North of Haiti

We will also take this as a chance to discuss Charlemagne Peralte, who after two years of guerrilla warfare established a provisional government in the north of Haiti (home to most of the Mining Conventions) during the US Occupation.  He was betrayed by one of his officers and killed.  He was tied to a door such that people believe he was crucified.  The photograph was distributed throughout the country to demoralize Haitians.  But, for obvious reasons, it had the opposite effect.  Peralte became a martyr of the Haitian nation.  And, Haitians sometimes describe Haiti itself as Jesus crucified.

It is worth noting, however, something which no-one discusses:  at the time of World War I (1914-1918), 80% of Haiti’s trade was with Germany.  The US invasion started in 1915, during World War I, although the US was not officially at war with Germany until 1917. And, the descendants of Germans in Haiti still seem to hold an important place in Haiti’s economy.  We think, for instance, of Gerhard Helmcke, who signed the Citadelle Mining Convention, and who descended from the German Consul, Friedrich Edmund Helmcke.  We believe that Franck Helmcke of Unibank is also a descendant of the German Consul.  They have, of course, intermarried with older Haitian elite families (e.g. Dufort; Baussan). According to the US government Historian’s office:  “The United States considered Germany its chief rival in the Caribbean, and feared German control of Haiti would give them a powerful advantage in the area.”  You can read online all of the complicated reasons that the US is said to have invaded and occupied Haiti.  However, we believe that the importance of the Windward Passage and Panama Canal are underestimated in considering why the US invaded Haiti in 1915, as well as later interest in Haiti. http://history.state.gov/milestones/1914-1920/Haiti

The De Pradines, the 1915 US Occupation, and Recent Mining Conventions or What’s in a Name?

Everyone who has read a bio of President Martelly knows that one of his ancestors was Auguste de Pradines, called “Candio”, who sang comic songs against the US occupation.  Candio was Martelly’s maternal grandfather.  On the internet you can read something about Candio being a crippled Frenchman who earned a living singing in Port-au-Prince.  But, this was no Frenchman!  Candio’s grandfather born in Port-au-Prince and was Petion’s private secretary.

2 April 2013 continuation:
Candio’s father is said to have been Symphor Linstant de Pradines, an attorney born in Jeremie.  Symphor’s sister and Candio’s Aunt was Aurelie Linstant de Pradines whose second husband was Semexant Rouzier senior.  Semexant was a merchant whose brother Arthur Rouzier, Sr. was a Senator.  Arthur’s son Arthur Rouzier (Jr.)’s daughter Coralie was the grandmother of Lt. General Raoul Cedras, Jr. who led the first coup against Aristide.  Coralie’s grandmother was a Sansaricq (Clorinde). (1)  According to the Nouvelliste, 22 Jan. 2013, Senator Moise Jean Charles alleged that President Martelly set up Carribean General Trading Company (CGT), administered by Dr. Rudy Moise, Lionel Sansaric and an unnamed woman in order to “grab the resources of the country”.  He further alleged that the CGT controls 16 of the 18 mining sites or an area equivalent to 5% of the country.  Coralie’s sister (Cedras’ great-aunt) was Henriette Rouzier who married a Hudicourt.  Gary Lissade, Sr. of Lissade Law’s late wife Mireille Hudicourt (mother of Gary, Jr.), was thus second cousins with Raoul Cedras (i.e. their grandmothers were sisters).  Lissade represented Cedras during the Governor’s Island negotiations.  Remember Chantal Hudicourt Ewald?  She was the attorney listed as a member of the Board of Citadelle Mining Company, in conjunction with the November 1996 Board Resolution to support the terms of the Morne Bossa-Grand Bois Mining Convention and to give Pierre R. Gauthier and Gerhard Helmcke all power to sign on Citadelle’s behalf.  She and her husband Claude Ewald were on the list of blocked individuals during the Cedras led coup years.  It is probable that Chantal is Mireille’s sister, making her also second cousin to Cedras.  One of Henriette’s grandsons, Jean-Pierre Hudicourt was killed under Francois Duvalier (2), he would be a first cousin to Mireille, and a second cousin to Cedras. Symphor’s sister and Candio’s Aunt, Aurelie Linstant de Pradines’ second husband was a Rouzier but her third husband was Jacques Antoine Albertini.  Her 7th child was thus named Francoise “Clara” Albertini who then married an Ewald to become Clara Ewald. So, we have doubled back to the Ewalds.  And, this makes Chantal Hudicourt Ewald’s late husband Claude Ewald, third cousin, once removed to Martelly.  Now, going back to Aurelie Linstant de Pradines and her second husband Sexemant Rouzier:  their only son Sexemant Rouzier, Jr. had a son named Emile Rouzier, who had a son named Raoul Rouzier who had a son named Gerard Raoul Rouzier who served as Minister under Jean-Claude Duvalier and whose son Daniel Gerard Rouzier, b. 1960, was Martelly’s first pick for Prime Minister.  This would make Martelly and Daniel Gerard Rouzier, third cousins, twice removed through the de Pradines.  Daniel Gerard Rouzier and Lt. General Raoul Cedras (Jr.) would be fourth cousins once removed.  If you doubt the kinship ties between Daniel Rouzier and Raoul Cedras, Jr., stick their pictures side by side and see the resemblance!  Daniel Gerard Rouzier was also treasurer of Represent Action, a board member of SOFIDHES, Food for the Poor and of PromoCapital.  Remember RepresentAction included Jean-Marie Wolff of SOMINE Mining and Joseph E. Baptiste of VCS Mining as board members.  Among 70 founding members of Promocapital were Rouzier, Joseph Baptiste of VCS Mining, and Lamothe’s business buddy Patrice Baker.  Sexemant Rouzier Jr.’s son Emile had another son, Emile, Jr aka Milo Rouzier, a banker.  One of Milo’s daughters was Jacqueline Rouzier Baker, aunt to Charles Henri Baker, member of the 184.  Charles Baker is married to the sister of super-elite Andre Apaid, Jr. who, along with Boulos were principal leaders of the Group 184.  Andre Sr. was a strong support of Jean-Claude Duvalier.  Charles Baker has an Apaid wife, a Rouzier Aunt (descended from Debrosse and earlier from DePradines), a Moscoso Aunt and a Baussan Aunt.  Now, Emile Rouzier Sr.’s first wife and the mother of Raoul Rouzier and Milo, Claire Rouzier, was born Claire Debrosse (Emile’s second wife was a Nadal).  Who else was born Debrosse?  Preval’s current wife.  She is also the niece of General Namphy, and was the wife of the late Leslie Delatour.  Leslie Delatour was second cousin to the mother of Michele Bennett (Jean-Claude Duvalier’s ex-wife and former “First Lady” of Haiti).  As most know, Michele’s mother is a sister to Archbishop Ligonde, who was appointed by Francois Duvalier.  On the Bennett side Michele claims descent from King Henri Christophe of Haiti.  So, we said that we found some pedigree information on our desk and this is part of it.  Remember Richard Morse of RAM, Martelly’s cousin who recently resigned from Martelly’s administration?   His mother was a dePradines and, like Martelly, his grandfather was Candio.  If Martelly sang in support of the Cedras military government, Morse sang against it.  Still, we suspect that Morse, as son of an American academic is somewhat an anomaly, and even he got sucked into the Martelly administration.  Of course, Richard Morse is a Princeton graduate, which proves, we guess that an infamously corrupt US politician was right when he said that just because someone is a friend or is kin doesn’t mean that they are not qualified.

What does all of this prove?  Probably mostly it proves that the Haitian elites didn’t pop up overnight and still rule and that they are small in number and intermarry with each other (and sometimes newer elites), such that most of Haiti’s elites are probably kin.  Most of these individuals descend, in some way, from people who were Free Persons of Color and usually educated, even in slave days. Their worlds and that of their ancestors are light-years away from the world of the Haitian peasant and their ancestors. At least some old elites that had lost favor or were exiled under Francois Duvalier made a come-back under Jean-Claude Duvalier or since.  And, plus ca change, plus c’est la meme chose (the more things change, the more they are the same). It also shows a clear need for indepth research into Who Rules Haiti.  There is especially need for sorting out the various phases of Duvalierism.  People are calling people Duvalierists without even clarifying which Duvalier.

More food for thought is that Kate Middleton’s ancestor Thomas Fairfax was a leader of Cromwell’s New Model Army in the English Civil Wars which led to the beheading of King Charles I of England.  Though he later flipped sides and supported the restoration of Charles II.  And, so, a descendant of this New Model Army leader will sit on the English throne, while the descendants of those royalists deported from England will not.  So we guess that Candio’s grandson, Michel Martelly, becoming President, under the protection of UN troops, looks pale in comparison (Martelly sang against Aristide being returned by US troops; Candio sang comic songs about US occupation). Martelly and Fairfax can best be described as opportunists or survivalists.  Who can pay for singers and entertainment? Who gives the biggest parties? Not the poor and starving.  Martelly’s camp is clear.

[NB:  We can make no guarantees as to the accuracy of the above pedigrees and kinship lines.  Error can come into pedigrees in many ways.  There is also the possibility of fabricating important ancestors: e.g. Did Michele Bennett Duvalier really descend from King Henri Christophe or was this made-up since she was First Lady?

We intend to check the names and kinship lines and cousins once again against our notes, as soon as we can.  In the interest of promptness we are posting now. However, any errors will not change the general sense of our post.  We may also add additional footnotes with information about Leslie Delatour and his wife, if we have time.  If not, you can read information online]

SEE PICTURES BELOW THE FOOTNOTES; REFERENCES BELOW PICTURES

FOOTNOTES
(1) Many of the Sansaricq family, including very small children, were massacred by Francois Duvalier in the Jeremie Vespers in 1964.  Although this was in retaliation for an attempted coup attempt, the Sansaricqs do not seem to have participated in this coup.  Later  Bernard Sansaricq was involved in attempts to overthrow both Duvaliers (ca. 1965; 1982).
(2)  This article discusses the Riobe Affair which resulted in Jean-Pierre Hudicourt’s death.  It also points to the complexities of the Francois Duvalier period where he sometimes turned against his followers and vice versa:  http://www2.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/duvaliers/overthrow.htm  See more info on the Riobe Affair and list of Duvalier victims in references.  It is very important to understand that there were different phases of Duvalierism.  This was especially true because who ruled behind the scenes of Jean-Claude’s presidency varied over time.
So, some who had been exiled under Francois Duvalier were able to return to positions of power under Jean-Claude (e.g. Rene Preval whose father, having worked for Magloire, was exiled and yet Rene Preval returned in 1975 or 76 to work at the predecessor of the Bureau of Mines).
Somine Boundary 2011Mine or Quarry 2007Mine or Quarry 2009Mine or Quarry 2010

Jesus Terrain with profile

REFERENCES AND ADDITIONAL READING

http://www.alltravels.com/haiti/all-regions/trou-du-nord/photos/current-photo-35698290

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne_Péralte

http://www.lenouvelliste.com/article4.php?newsid=112782

US, Germany, Haiti

http://history.state.gov/milestones/1914-1920/Haiti

Lueders Affair

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F30B1FF9385416738DDDAF0994D9415B8785F0D3

US occupation of Haiti

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_occupation_of_Haiti

Martelly 1997 bio

http://www.miaminewtimes.com/content/printVersion/237634/

Promocapital

http://www.historycommons.org/entity.jsp?entity=promocapital

http://www.bizapedia.com/tx/REPRESENTACTION.html

Sansaricq family

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jérémie_Vespers

http://articles.latimes.com/keyword/bernard-sansaricq

Richard Auguste Morse

http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2005-02-02/features/0502020018_1_love-haiti-haitian-citizen-musical-groove

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Auguste_Morse

Elisabeth Debrosse Delatour

http://www.tanbou.com/2010/summer/DiscussionFiliationPouvoirHaiti.htm

Thomas Fairfax

http://www.nam.ac.uk/exhibitions/online-exhibitions/britains-greatest-general/thomas-fairfax

Windward passage

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windward_Passage

Group 184

http://coat.ncf.ca/our_magazine/links/61/42-43.htm

Big world vs. Small world theory

http://www.judithkleinfeld.com/ar_bigworld.html

Papa Doc clergy

http://www.concordatwatch.eu/topic-39321.843

Francois Duvalier and Riobe affair and Magloire, lists of some of Duvalier’s victims

http://www2.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti-archive/msg02316.html

http://www.fordi9.com/Pages/AffairRiobeHector.htm

http://www.fordi9.com/Pages/Victlist/ListA.htm

http://www.windowsonhaiti.com/bbs/mensajes/66.html

Some history of Creoles of Color (focus more on Louisiana but was similar to Haiti; sometimes same families) who are at the origins of the Haitian elites.  The Plaçage mentioned here is of the historic variety of common law marriage.

http://www.frenchcreoles.com/CreoleCulture/common%20names/commonnames.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plaçage

http://tulane.edu/news/newwave/081711_quadroon.cfm

http://cocofullofgrace.com/post/37647932733/sexuality-between-slaveholders-and-slaves-in-the

http://www.slateafrique.com/91441/en-haiti-nous-sommes-racistes-discrimination-peau-noir

http://www.slateafrique.com/91833/racisme-en-haiti-radiographie-du-mal

Brown Paper Bag test was still used as late as ca 1970 in New Orleans http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=brown+paper+bag+test